Gonen for 7 In an original twist on an Aristotelian theme, Paine invokes the social nature of human beings as an argument against overbearing government. James Madison (1751 1836), a contemporary of Paine, contributed his famous essay on factions to The Federalist Papers. Here Madison explicitly attributes political strife to the fallibility of human reason and the indelible effects of human passion and self-love. He writes that the latent causes of faction are thus sown in the nature of man.8 With this in mind, Madison sets out to construct a form of government that will compensate for humanity’s inherent shortcomings. Human nature provides the timber with which every politics must be constructed. Many political theorists, like Madison, argue that such crooked timber requires sophisticated architectural engineering, that is to say, the construction of a good constitution and government, to achieve adequate results. Gonen 2016.

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