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Diodore was the head of an important school of scriptural exegesis and can be considered the true founder of the Antiochene exegetical school. Theodore of Mopsuestia and perhaps John Chrysostom were his pupils. We know that he wrote commentaries on a good number of the books of the OT and NT, and a theoretical work On the Difference Between Theory and Allegory. He reacted against what he considered the excessive allegorism of the Alexandrians, proposing a predominantly literal appreciation of the sacred text, without however excluding theoria, i.e., the possibility of seeing some OT episodes as typological and prophetic anticipations of the events of Christ and the church. The few surviving fragments that were known until 1980 show him to be a convinced literalist, with a tendency to highlight the overall meaning of the books he interpreted and to harmonize the interpretation of individual details of the text with these general criteria.

In 1980 publication began of a complete Commentary on the Psalms Psalms 1 50 and an introduction to Psalm 118, previously unpublished and of disputed attribution. Olivier, the editor, adduces good reasons for sustaining Diodore’s authorship. The commentary on the biblical text is conducted according to the typical canons of Antiochene interpretation in a strict sense, which are expounded in detail in the general introduction to the Commentary on the Psalms and in the introduction to Psalm 118.

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