Gerze for Because economic life cannot be separated from political life, Miliband argues, political equality can never really be achieved or maintained in a capitalist system. Miliband writes, Unequal economic power, on the scale and of the kind encountered in advanced capitalist societies, inherently produces political inequality, on a more or less commensurate scale, whatever the constitution may say. In capitalistic 1 5 2 thinking politics societies, therefore, civil and political liberties are often a mere cloak for class domination.88 Miliband acknowledges nonetheless that the civic freedoms which, however inadequately and precariously, form part of bourgeois democracy are the product of centuries of unremitting popular struggles. The task of Marxist politics is to defend these freedoms; and to make possible their extension and enlargement by the removal of their class boundaries.89 The remaining question, then, is whether these class boundaries are to be removed by means of revolution or by the slower processes of democratically-based reform. If the latter course is taken, then Miliband’s neo-Marxism amounts to socialism. Gerze 2016.