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It is interesting to observe that the Greek term kosmopoli,thj in the Christian era is almost exclusively attested in Hellenistic Jewish authors, such as Philo of Alexandria who was read and appreciated by many Christian Fathers and Christian ones. Philo in Opif. 3,4 refers it just to Moses, the author of both the law and Genesis, the narrative on the creation of the cosmos kosmopoii a, presented by him as a preparation for the law. Philo explains that the men of God are not kosmopolitai in the sense of being inhabitants of this world, since they inhabit the other world, the noetic and divine world. Moses, in particular, is called kosmopoli,thj in Conf. ling. 106,3, because he inhabited the cosmos as a city and a patria. In Migr. 5,3 he takes up the Stoic idea that the wise person is kosmopoli,thj. Indeed, in Vita Mos. I,157 the wise are described as participating in all divine goods, without possessing anything personally, not even themselves, and are kosmopolitai, so that they do not belong to any particular city, because God is the king of all nations. Such persons are true kosmopolitai in that they regard the whole cosmos as a city; the citizens of this city are all those who devote their life to wisdom, and the city is presided over by virtue to.n me.n ko,smon evno,misan ei=nai po,lin poli,taj de. tou.j sofi,aj o`milhta,j avrethj evggrafou,shj h- pepi,steutai to. koino.n poli,teuma prutaneu,ein, Spec. leg. II 45: Philo clearly inherited the Stoic ideal of the City of Zeus. In Somn. 1,243 Philo observes that the whole heaven and the cosmos are a votive offering to God, who has also made them, and the souls who inhabit the cosmos and love God.

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