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The author of the ps.-Aristotelian treatise De mundo emphasizes the close relationship between philosophy and contemplation 391 a 1-8 and says that nothing is more excellent than the contemplation of the universe and the heavenly bodies 391 a 24 b 3, and he links the cosmos indissolubly to the idea of order safeguarded by God 391 b 9-12. For the Stoics, the cosmos is a living, intelligent, rational, animate, absolutely perfect being SVF I,110, 111, 113, 114; II,633, 634, 638, 641, governed by providence SVF II,633, 634, ruled and pervaded by the divine pneuma immanent in it SVF II,638, a real god SVF II,637 and 641: the logos, the divine principle that permeates it and is identical with the pneuma SVF I,85, 87, 88, 160; II,441, is also its law nomos SVF I,162; and the law that regulates it, determined by the logos, is the same law that must regulate human ethics, since human reason logos is nothing but a fragment of the universal logos see, e.g., SVF II,634. The concept of sympathy or interrelation between the elements of the universe, the first cause of its harmony, goes back esp. to the Stoic Posidonius see K. Reinhardt, Kosmos und Sympathie, Munich 1926, 103-121; the section Die Harmonie im Weltraume in K. Gronau, Poseidonios und die j¼dischchristliche Genesisexegese, Leipzig – Berlin 1914, 142-146; and M. Pohlenz, Die Stoa, Gttingen 1959, I,217 and II,108, where the relevant material is collected. In Stoicism too we see the idea of contemplation of the order of the universe, which allows human beings to believe in the divine principle immanent in it SVF I,528; Manilius, Astron.

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