Florence for If, as many do, the individual suffers a setback and gives in to temptation, the model proposes that recovery self-efficacy is necessary to get the individual back on track Renner and Schwarzer While it is a relatively new model, early findings based on the HAPA are encouraging. For example, in a longitudinal study of breast self-examination behaviour among German women, pre-actional self-efficacy and positive outcome expectancies and not risk perception were significant predictors of goal intention. Self-efficacy beliefs also predicted planning. In terms of actual BSE behaviour by the time of follow-up twelve?fifteen weeks later planning was, as hypothesised, highly predictive, with maintenance and recovery self-efficacy also predicting greater frequency of the behaviour Luszczynska and Schwarzer These findings support the presence of phase-specific self-efficacy beliefs and provide a possible focus for intervention studies. Although it is perhaps surprising that risk perception was not predictive given findings of studies using both the HBM and the TPB, it may well be that risk perceptions influenced participants before they were Plate Breast self-examination can detect early breast abnormalities, which may be indicative of cancer. Early detection increases the chance of successful treatment. Source Corbis/Michael A. Florence 2016.