Fayzabad City of Afghanistan for Depending on the level of government, these expenditures include national defense, fire protection, public parks, etc. government securities: government issued debt, including bonds and treasury bills. gross domestic product (GDP): a measure of economic activity. GDP is calculated as the total value of all final goods and services produced in a given period within a nation’s borders. When assigning value to these goods and services, one may use current prices (nominal GDP) or constant prices (real GDP). human capital: any characteristic, such as skill level, education, etc., that improves an individual’s productivity. Fayzabad City of Afghanistan 2016.