European flags for He fi rst became part of the lineage of master Shitou, which had a Northern school orientation and later gave rise to the Soto school. Th is eventually became the main rival to the Rinzai school, which epitomized the Southern school approach based on the teachings of Mazu. Th erefore, Deshan represented what was at the time the primary rival to the lineage represented by Guishan. Th e main diff erence between approaches was that the Northern school put an emphasis on the interpretation of scriptures or sutras and on a more gradual method of attainment through prolonged meditation. Th e Southern school emphasized sudden enlightenment perfected through everyday activities, such as communal labor, as well as a valorization of silence. Several koan rec ords show how Deshan was traveling south to investigate the Southern school with the intention of going to raid their dens and caves and exterminate the whole crew, in order to do justice to the compassion of the Buddha. While the case about the rice cakes shows an el der ly laywoman giving Deshan his comeuppance, the current narrative indicates that Guishan acknowledges Deshan as a worthy adversary who will soon be able to open and establish his own in de pen dent mountain. European flags 2016.