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This council, later called latrocinium Ephesinum, was called by the emperor Theodosius II at Ephesus for 1 August 449. It was proposed to reexamine the condemnation of Eutyches and the subsequent disputes between monophysites and dyophysites. Faced with the violent reactions of the monophysites, led by Dioscorus of Alexandria, to Eutyches’ condemnation, Essen/D¼sseldorf Metro Map Theodosius had changed his position, originally unfavorable to Eutyches. Dioscorus himself was delegated to preside over the council, assisted by Juvenal of Jerusalem, while Theodoret of Cyrrhus, the most seasoned exponent of dyophysite Christology, was forbidden to attend. The council opened 8 August in St. Mary’s church in the presence of some 130 bishops. Essen/D¼sseldorf Metro Map The Roman delegation requested the reading of some letters of Leo of Rome, including one, doctrinally very important, to Flavian, bishop of Constantinople and adversary of Eutyches Tomus ad Flavianum; but Dioscorus eluded the request.

Subsequently Eutyches was cleared of every accusation and the dyophysite Christology, which preached two natures in Christ after the incarnation, divine and human, was condemned. Dioscorus then demanded the condemnation of Flavian and of Eusebius of Dorylaeum, who had been the first to accuse Nestorius. In the tumult that followed, soldiers and others entered the council chamber. Essen/D¼sseldorf Metro Map Flavian was severely beaten and died three days later, while Eusebius managed to escape; both were condemned by the council. At a later session, on 22 August, Ibas of Edessa and Theodoret were condemned along with others, including Domnus of Antioch, who had so far approved all of the council’s proceedings. Thus all the Antiochene exponents of dyophysite Christology were eliminated, and Dioscorus closed the council by having Cyril’s 12 anathemata read and approved.

Ca. 475. In the context of the pro-monophysite policy of the usurper Basiliscus 475 476, a council of numerous Asiatic bishops met at Ephesus, including the monophysite patriarch of Alexandria, Timothy Aelurus Timothy II, who was passing through. The council upheld the rights of the metropolitan see of Ephesus against the primacy of the patriarch of Constantinople, sanctioned by the Council of Chalcedon, restored the local bishop Paul whom Acacius of Constantinople had expelled because he had been elected without his participation, confirmed the pro-monophysite encyclical issued by Basiliscus and asked the emperor to punish the bishops who had refused to subscribe it.

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