Durban for Keller/Zefa assessed for the study and therefore effects on the HAPA variables had passed. It is always hard in research to establish an absolute baseline’ for measurement, and such results should not be taken as proof that risk perceptions are not important ? the body of evidence would prove otherwise. Further evidence of the importance of self-efficacy to recovery from setbacks can be seen in a study of newly unemployed men Mittag and Schwarzer where low perceived self-efficacy regarding re-employment and dealing with the challenges of unemployment was associated with heavy drinking behaviour, where high self-efficacy was not. ISSUES Are models of health behaviour globally useful? Health models such as those described in this chapter have brought our understanding of behaviour a long way. However, we are still far from being able to predict all behaviour perhaps thankfully, and we are further still from successfully developing and implementing interventions that will maximise the adoption or maintenance of healthy lifestyles. While research employing these models has been plentiful, much of it, particularly in relation to the TPB, has been conducted among young healthy populations. The prolific use of student samples, for example, enables theories to be tested and built, and interesting questions to be addressed such as what influences students’ drinking behaviour and given its normative function can it be changed? Or what factors influence non-regular use of condoms, and does drinking alcohol interfere with even the best of intentions?. Durban 2016.