Dubai for For example, condom use is considered to be a sin against some religions and therefore health promotion efforts targeting increased susceptibility beliefs about HIV or STDs will face added barriers. Among those of certain faiths, drinking alcohol is banned, thus an individual who is drinking heavily faces very different emotional and normative pressures. It is important therefore at all times for research to remember the context of behaviour and address such social and cultural factors. Health promotion efforts are likely to have limited success if the health behaviour is treated as though it exists independently of other aspects of human functioning. Summary Many proximal and distal factors influence our behaviour, and our health behaviour, such as our age, gender, attitudes, beliefs and goals. Continuum models like the HBM and the TPB have demonstrated the importance of social and cognitive factors in predicting both intention to act and action, although the static nature of these models leaves a need for better understanding of the processes of change. Stage models like the TTM and the HAPA address processes of change and have gone some way towards filling the gap between intention and behaviour, and in particular the basic distinction between motivational and volitional processes is useful and important. Dubai 2016.