Donegal City for Although our genes constrain politics in certain respects, we should remember that these same genes make politics possible in the first place. In turn, politics”and culture in general”stretches the leash of our genes. Were we genetically incapable of developing a sophisticated political and cultural life, our genes would determine much more of our experiences than they currently do. As is the case with other animals, our genetic leashes would then be much shorter and much stiffer. Among the erectly postured, apelike creatures that preceded the evolution of human beings some 12 million years ago, one may assume that culture and politics barely existed. Like the rest of the animal kingdom, the behavior of these early hominids was highly determined by their genes, by way of instinctive drives. The genetic leashes were very short and very stiff. Donegal City 2016.