Dinar for The term modernist was first used with this connotation in the sixteenth century. It referred, often pejoratively, to someone who spurned tradition and advocated either new techniques of scientific inquiry or the study and use of vernacular or contemporary languages rather than classical Greek or Latin. Modernism stood in contrast to traditionalism, which indicated a tendency to adhere to methods of inquiry, orientations, and languages that had been handed down from ancient and medieval times. The term modernist may never actually have been used in his own day to describe the Italian astronomer, mathematician, and physicist Galileo Galilei (1564 1642). Nonetheless, we may view this key figure of the Scientific Revolution as embodying the central features of modernism. Galileo abandoned traditional authorities and standards of inquiry. He took exception to Aristotle, 66 thinking politics who until that time had stood as the chief authority in matters of science no less than in matters of philosophy. Dinar 2016.