De Bernardi Ferrero

De Bernardi Ferrero III. Sculpture, painting and minor arts. The plastic work of Asia Minor in the Late Antique period is of great importance especially for sculpture in the round, since it was here that the idiom that would later characterize Byzantine sculpture proper was born and developed. The majority of the Late Antique sculptures now in the museums of Istanbul, Sel§uk, Vienna, New York etc. came from the great metropolises like Ephesus and Aphrodisias, the best-known examples being the reliefs on the base of the obelisk of Theodosius I and the head of Arcadius all probably executed by artists trained in Asia Minor, and the statue of Valentinian II Istanbul, Arch. Mus. from the baths of Aphrodisias. In this new conception of the human figure, great importance is given to the face, esp. the eyes, while the body is hidden by the drapery, generally flattened. Gone are naturalistic observations: the idealized portrait and, in historical reliefs, the so-called moral perspective prevail. The praying figures in the so-called Rotunda of Galerius at Thessalonica mid-5th c. are in my opinion a clear transposition of this idiom into painting, emphasizing the acceptance of the idiom not just in Asia Minor and new Rome but also in important centers of the empire like Thessalonica in particular, geographically close to the capital and a historical link between East and West. This idiom did not begin ex abrupto in Asia Minor in the 4th-5th c.: rather, Late Antique work represents the point of arrival of a process that matured in this area, signs of which can already be seen in 2nd-c. works and whose most important evolutionary steps can be traced. In my opinion, an exhibition at the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna October 1981, part of the material excavated at Ephesus, allows us, by considering the pieces chronologically, to reconstruct the phases of this process, which came about by degrees, in a coherent diagram. An important moment in this process is probably the tetrarchical reliefs of Hadrian’s temple at Ephesus see B. Brenk, Die Datierung der Reliefs, 238-258, which anticipate certain Theodosian sculptures. Though sometimes assigned to the mid-4th c. see A. Bammen – R. Fleischer – D. Knibbe, F¼hrer durch Ephesos, 78ff., I would accept the attribution of these reliefs to the period of the tetrarchy. The example of Ephesus was certainly not isolated, as is demonstrated by the surviving statues of Aphrodisias in particular and also of the other main centers of Asia Minor see the catalogs of Y. Inan and E. Alfldi Rosenbaum of Roman and Byzantine portrait sculpture from Turkey. Pieces belonging to the period between Theodosius I and Theodosius II provide precise terms of comparison which allow us to assign to this period certain portraits usually classified as Justinianean, e.g., the splendid female bust from Istanbul now in the Metropolitan Museum, which Harrison, at the 16th Int. Cong. of Byzantine Studies R.M. Harrison, Anicia Juliana’s Church of St. Polyeuktos: J–Byz 32 1982 435-442, arbitrarily identified with Princess Juliana Anicia d. 527. In addition to stylistic data, the hairstyle, which lacks a diadem, differs from that of Anicia’s portrait in the opening miniature of the so-called Vienna Dioscorides, or the so-called Theodora in the Musei Civici of Milan Castle. A heightened stylization, sometimes impaired by a low level of quality, separates the output of Asia Minor in the 4th and 5th c. from later, generally Justinianean, work, such as the Ephesus statues attributed to this period see Y. Inan – E. Rosenbaum, Portrait Sculpture, pl. CLXXXV-VI in which the hairstyle has become pure ornamentation, and the similar head from ‡anakkale, now at Istanbul Arch. Mus.; in both cases the overall conception is prevalently decorative. The output of architectural decoration, partly summarized esp. as regards slabs decorated in basrelief from the 9th to the 10th c. by Ulbert, is also very rich and is part of the wider idiom of the Mediterranean koine prevalent motifs: losenges, crosses, facing animals, plant motifs and so on. Some ambos of the 5th-6th c. have a certain interest, e.g., that of Priene, decorated with plant motifs, in a typology peculiar to Ionia and Caria see O. Feld, Sp¤tantike, 168. In this wide and varied picture it is possible to distinguish work belonging to the most important regional schools, such as Isauria and Cilicia, esp. in the period of the Isaurian emperor Zeno 474 491. Both were characterized by the use of local stone marble pieces are rare decorated with plant and symbolic motifs, often aniconic. In these works the decoration generally occupies the whole surface, in a sort of horror vacui: see the altars and architectural decorations of Alahan Monastir and, to cite the most interesting examples, the cylindrical altar from Tomarza, now in Kayseri Arch. Mus. see M. Restle, Studien, figs. 210 and 212, and p. 165. Similar decorations occur in the builders’ yard of Qalat Seman N Syria, also from the time of Zeno, who was magister militum per Antiochiam before becoming emperor. As for capitals in particular, Ionic impost capitals are very common, esp. in the great centers see F.K. Yeg¼l, Early Byzantine Capitals from Sardis, 265-274, while acanthus-leaf capitals are found esp. in the great 5th-c. foundations e.g., the pre-Justinianean basilica of St. John at Ephesus, the martyrium of St. Philip at Hierapolis, Meriamlik etc.. Small local museums are important mines of material: there are superb little-known marble pieces in the museums of Afyon Karahisar, Iznik, Amasya and so on, to say nothing of the many museums of eastern Turkey. The work of these regions, though prevalently autochthonous the idiom is different, as we have seen, around metropolises like Ephesus and Aphrodisias, is often informed by metropolitan tendencies, esp. if linked to court commissions see, e.g., the capitals of Alahan Monastir, which transpose into local stone the type of the marble capitals of St. John of Studios, ca. 450. Even the idiom of the particular decorations of St. Polyeuctos finds an echo in the regions of Asia Minor, e.g., in my opinion, some capitals of the so-called Cumanin Camii at Antalya in Lycia. In general we are faced with a varied and multivalent output, which, esp. in the course of the 5th c., touches the greatest heights: this century is in fact revealed to art-historical examination as a period of lively experimentalism in contrast with the standardization of the time of Justinian. Work from the 7th and 8th c., the dark centuries of the Byzantine Empire, is, for historical and political reasons, extremely fragmentary. With the restoration of images and the rise to power of the Macedonian dynasty, we see in Asia Minor as well a certain artistic revival though some situations were definitively compromised and the great centers of Late Antiquity reduced to little more than villages, though it is far from the notable work of the protoByzantine period. Painting and mosaics. Early Christian frescoes are rare in Asia Minor. The most interesting find is a burial chamber on the hill of Caltepe near Izmir see N. Firatli, An Early Byzantine Hypogeum, 919- 932, excellently preserved: side walls decorated with plant and bird motifs alternating with panels imitating opus sectile; barrel vault painted with a coffer motif; main wall with a cantharus between two facing peacocks; and Constantine’s monogram high up in a tympanum. These 4th-c. frescoes have points of contact with certain hypogea in Asia Minor e.g. Sardis and Izmit and with that of Silistria lower Moesia. Mosaics, esp. pavement mosaics, abound in the great centers of Asia Minor such as Ephesus see W. Jobst, Mosaiken, using the most traditional Late Antique motifs, i.e., geometrical, plant, emblemata etc. Early Byzantine churches generally prefer geometrical motifs: at Ephesus, the floor of the Seven Sleepers, recently assigned to the time of Theodosius I see W. Jobst, Zur Bestattungskirche, 271ff., and those of the Churches of St. John and St. Mary. The most interesting work is that of Cilicia, for historical-geographical reasons close to the Antio chene artistic milieu Cilicia depended on the patriarchate of Antioch, esp. mosaics at Mopsuestia, probably a synagogue, with scenes from the life of Samson see E. Kitzinger, Observations, 133-144, mosaic with Noah’s Ark also at Mopsuestia see H. Buschhausen, Die Deutung des Archenmosaik, 57ff., that at Karlik see M. Gough, The Peaceful Kingdom, 411-419, etc. This work, which often reveals deep symbolic meanings, extends over the 4th-6th c. see L. Budde, Antike Mosaiken and stylistically has particular points of contact with Antioch and sometimes with Palestine. Wall mosaics are rather rare, at least judging from surviving works apart from the splendid mosaics of the destroyed Church of the Dormition at Nicaea, attributed to Constantinopolitan artisans: date contested. In a room at Ephesus interesting mosaics in brightly colored glass stones were found with scenes of grape harvest and busts, including Bacchus and Ariadne late 4th or early 5th c., see W. Jobst, Mosaiken, figs. 110-124, who has compared them, among others, with those of S. Costanza, Rome. Those in Christian buildings include scanty fragments in the diaconicon of the church of DereaÄŸzi in Lycia, ca. 20 km 12 mi NW of Myra, now in Antalya Arch. Mus., probably fragments of a theophany inspired by Isaiah or Ezekiel, with a wheel surrounded by flames a scene that sometimes appears in early Cappadocian cycles and the oldest Georgian apses; also the remains of a figure, including sandaled feet and part of a tunic predominant colors: green in various shades white, turquoise, yellow and red. Like the church itself a building of great artistic interest they are generally dated to the 9th c. post-843; but having examined them closely at Antalya, I would bring them forward to the mid 6th, or at most 7th, c. on the basis of technical and stylistic considerations. The fragments show a grainy connective tissue and linear rendering of clothing as in numerous old Byzantine mosaics; in posticonoclast work the design is generally more precise and compact, as we can see by comparing these with the post-843 images of Hagia Sophia, Constantinople or the late 8th-c. ones in Hagia Sophia, Thessalonica. A further fragment of wall mosaic, hardly legible, was found in the apse of a small room at Anemurium in Cilicia, with remains of a Greek inscription see Rosenbaum – Huber – Ourkan, Survey in Cilicia. So-called minor arts. Of numerous silver liturgical objects, the most interesting pieces are probably the so-called Kumluca treasure from Lycia, now partly in Antalya Arch. Mus., partly in the United States see N. Firatli, Trsor, 523-525. Plates decorated with a cross, chalices, perforated plates for candlesticks and a censer with scenes of Christ’s life are perfectly preserved: made in the time of Justinian, whose monogram is impressed in several places, under Bishop Eutychianus, mentioned in Greek inscriptions engraved on several pieces. The Isaurian silver reliquary from ‡irga, now in Adana Arch. Mus., is older, depicting the local saints Conon and Thecla and other saints, with busts of Helena and Constantine on either side of the cross see H. Buschhausen, Sp¤tr- mische Metallscrinia, 190. The piece is dated to the 5th c. see M. Gough, A Fifth Century Reliquiary, 244- 250 and the 4th c. Buschhausen. The 4th c. date seems to me more convincing, esp. since Helena’s hairstyle is the same as that attested on coins, which seems improbable in the 5th c. Judging from silver and bronze pieces in Turkish and foreign museums, the output of metal objects was abundant, esp. in the 4th-6th c., the most significant centuries of the artistic history of this area. General works: Monumenta Asiae Minoris Antiqua, London 1928ff.; articles on the most important regions and centers so far published in RBK; Propyl¤en Kunstgeschichte: O. Feld, Sp¤tantike und Fr¼hes Christentum, Frankfurt-Berlin-Vienna 1977; G. Macchiarella, s.v. Bizantino, additional volume of the Enciclopedia Universale dell’Arte, Rome 1978; var. aus., Age of Spirituality, Washington 1979 indexes relating to pieces from A. M.; entries in ODB. Sculpture: N. Thierry, Notes sur l’un des bas-reliefs d’Alahan Monastir en Isaurie: CArch 13 1963 43-47; O. Feld, Bericht ¼ber eine Reise durch Kilikien: IstMitt 14 1964 88-107; J. Inan – E. Rosenbaum, Roman and Early Byzantine Portrait Sculpture in Asia Minor, London 1966; C. Mango, Isaurian Builders, in Polychronion Festschrift F. Dlger, Heidelberg 1966, 358-365; B. Brenk, Die Datierung der Relief am Hadrianstempel in Ephesos und das Problem der Tetrarchischen Skulptur des Osten: IstMitt 18 1968 238-258; T. Ulbert, Studien zur dekorative Reliefplastik des stlichen Mittelmeerraumes: Miscellanea Byzantina Monacensia 10, Munich 1969; Id., Untersuchungen zu den Byzantinischen Reliefplatten des 6 bis 8 Jahrhunderts: IstMitt 19-20 1969-1970 339-357; P. Verzone, La cattedrale di Priene e le sue decorazioni: FR 1970 261-275; W. Oberleitner, Zwei Sp¤tantike Kaiserkpfe aus Ephesos: Jahrbuch der Kunsthistorischen Sammlungen in Vienna 69 1973 127-165; U. Peschlow, Fragmente eines Heiligensarkophags in Myra: IstMitt 23-24 1973 225-231; A. Bammen – R. Fleischen – D. Knibbe, F¼hrer durch das Arch¤ologische Museum in Sel§uk Ephesos, Vienna 1974; W. Deichmann, Sp¤tantike Bauplastik in Ephesos, Mlanges Mansel I, Ancyra 1974, 549-570; F.K. Yeg¼l, Early Byzantine Capitals from Sardis: A Study on the Ionic Impost Type: DOP 28 1974 265-274; O. Feld, Christliche Denkm¤ler aus Milet und seiner Umgebung: IstMitt 25 1975 197-209; S. Hill, The Early Christian Church at Tomarza, Cappadocia: A Study Based on Photographs Taken in 1909 by G. Bell: DOP 29 1975 151-164; Y. Inan – E. Alfldi Rosenbaum, Rmische und Fr¼hbyzantinische Portraitplastik aus der T¼rkei, Neue Funde, Mainz 1979; M. Restle, Studien zur Fr¼hbyzantinischen Architektur Kappadokiens, Vienna 1979; N. Firatli, La sculpture byzantine figure au Muse archologique d’Istanbul, Paris 1990; Hierapolis. Scavi e ricerche, 2 vols., ed. T. Ritti, Rome 1985; C. Mango, Byzantine Architecture, London 2 Sources and Documents, Toronto-London 1986; Hierapolis: scavi e ricerche, III, ed. G. Bejor, Rome 1991. Materials and centers of production: E. Atalay, Antiker Marmorsteinbruch bei Ephesos: OJh 51 1976-1977 59-60; D. Monna – P. Pensabene, Marmi dell’Asia Minore, Rome 1977; N. Asgari, Roman and Early Byzantine Marble Quarries of Proconnesus: Acts X Congresso Int. Archeology Classica, Ancyra 1978, 467- 480; A. Pralong, Trouvailles dans une carri¨re phrygienne inconnue: une inscription rupestre et un sarcophage in situ: RA 2 1980 251-262; J.B. Wand-Perkins, Nicomedia and the Marble Trade: PBSR 48, n.s. 1980 23-69; Arte profana e arte sacra a Bisanzio, eds. A. Iacobini – E. Zanini, Rome 1995; E. Concina, Le arti di Bisanzio: secoli VI-XV, Milan 2002. Painting and mosaics: E. Rosenbaum – G. Huber – S. Ourkan, A Survey of Coastal Cities in Western Cilicia, Ancyra 1967; J. Morgenstern – R.E. Stone, The Church at Dereagzi: A Preliminary Report on the Mosaics of the Diaconicon: DOP 23 1969-70 383- 393; L. Budde, Antike Mosaiken in Kilikien, 2 vols., Recklinghausen 1969, 1972; H. Buschhausen, Die Deutung des Archenmosaik in der Justinianischen Kirche von Mopsuestia, J–Byz 21 1972 57ff.; E. Kitzinger, Observations on the Samson Floor at Mopsuestia: DOP 27 1972-1974 Bbl. 271ff.; N. Firatli, An Early Byzantine Hypogeum Discovered at Iznik: Mlanges Mansel II, Ancyra 1974, 919-932; M. Gough, The Peaceful Kingdom: An Early Christian Mosaic Pavement in Cilicia Campestris, ibid. I, 411-419; E. Kitzinger, A Fourth Century Mosaics Floor in Pisidian Antioch, ibid., 385-395; W. Jobst, Rmische Mosaiken aus Ephesos I, Forschungen in Ephesos VIII, 2, Vienna 1977; S. Campbell, The Corpus of Mosaic Pavements in Turkey, 3, The Mosaics of Aphrodisias in Caria, Toronto Ont. 1991; L. Van de Put, The Architectural Decoration in Roman Asia Minor, Turnhout 1995; A.J. Wharton, Art of Empire: Painting and Architecture of the Byzantine Periphery: A Comparative Study of Four Provinces, London-Philadelphia 1988; Costantinopoli e l’arte delle province orientali, eds. F. de’ Maffei – C. Barsanti – A. Guiglia Guidobaldi, Rome 1990; M. Acheimastou-Potamianou, Byzantine Wall Painting, Athens 1994. So-called minor arts: N. Firatli, Un trsor du VIe  trouv   Kumluca en Lycie: Akten VII Int. Kongress f¼r Christliche Arch¤ologie, Vatican City 1969, 523-525; H. Buschhausen, Die Sp¤tr- mischen Metallscrinia und fr¼hchristlichen Reliquiare, Wiener Byzantinische Studien IX, Vienna 1971; Early Christian and Byzantine Art: Textiles, Metalwork, Frescoes, Manuscripts, Jewellery, Steatites, Stone Sculptures  from the Fourth to the Fourteenth Centuries, ed. R. Temple et al., Shaftesbury Dorset- London 1990; RBK 5,721-741.Paolo Verzone, Daria Ferrero De Bernardi, Guido Mandracci ve Vera … holidaymapq

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