Crete City for Like any good set of definitions, tautological theories may provide conceptual clarity, and this is no small accomplishment. The reasoning that holds the components of a tautological theory together, however, is completely circular and self-enclosed. Because its definitions do not challenge or reorganize our common ways of understanding the world, because it does not reinterpret the world in an original way, a tautological theory amounts to little more than a list of related entries in a dictionary. To avoid tautology, a set of propositions and arguments must make itself vulnerable to refutation or falsification.3 Good theories must be open to challenge, either from argument or from evidence. One should be able to construct or at least imagine an argument or empirical test that would disconfirm every theory and vision 7 theory worthy of its name. A theory that produces the assertion that the moon is made of green cheese, for example, is open to refutation. Crete City 2016.