Constantinian era

II. Iconography. The earliest figurative evidence of the apostles appears in the pre-Constantinian era with depictions of the apostolic college arranged around Christ images of the heavenly court deliberately and polemically opposed with the imperial court. Their iconography closely follows the type of the ancient philosopher and is essentially undifferentiated: only Peter, Paul and Andrew have individual characteristics. The oldest examples of the apostolic college date from the time of the tetrarchy. From the beginning they were depicted in a fixed scheme in three Christ, Peter and Paul or in twelve which remained substantially unchanged. In the frescoes of the Roman cemetery of Pietro e Marcellino Wp pl. 96 and of the anonymous cemetery of Via Anapo RivAC 5 1928 fig. 19 = J.G. Deckers – G. Mietke – A. Weiland, Die Katakombe Anonima di via Anapo, no. 8, Christ the teacher sits on a cathedra with footrest, his right hand in the gesture of adlocutio word, surrounded by his disciples in a semicircle; some decades later, on the front of an arcosolium of the cemetery of S. Ermete at Rome Wp pl. 152, the twelve disciples, like Christ, are seated on cathedrae, to emphasize the concept of missio apostolorum. On sarcophagi, the theme of the apostolic college appears in the wake of the Peace of the Church. The original pattern, as in the cemetery paintings, occurs sporadically; an artistically important example is that of the sarcophagus of Concordius Arles, late 4th c., Ws 34, 3, in which the inscriptions carved on the books and scrolls carried by Christ and the apostles include the expression dominus legem dat and the names of the four Evangelists, representing the traditio legis entrusted to the whole apostolic council. Only from the late 4th c. were the apostles shown standing and acclaiming Christ, who is royally seated on a draped throne, as on the sarcophagus of Mantua, dated 395 408 Ws pl. 30. Still in the 4th c. the theme of the apostolic college penetrated the mosaics of churches in solemn, monumental compositions. In S. Aquilino, Milan 4th c., following the oldest pattern, the apostles are seated around Christ magister; in S. Pudenziana, Rome early 5th c., together with other figures, they symbolize the church triumphant; in the Orthodox baptistery at Ravenna 5th c. they stand above the prophets as witnesses to the concordantia Veteris et Novi Testamenti. Where individuation was desired, images of the apostles were accompanied by their names; not the traditional list of Mt 10:2-4 and Mk 3:16-19 in inverted order but the so-called popular list in which Paul replaces Matthias, Mark replaces Thaddaeus and Luke replaces James, as in Theodoric’s mausoleum at Ravenna or the Barletta relief the oldest example of this list. From the late 4th to early 5th c. the apostles were also represented symbolically: as doves in a fresco of the cemetery of Commodilla, Rome RivAC 34 1958 9ff. = J.G. Deckers – G. Mietke – A. Weiland, Die Katakombe Commodilla. Repertorium der Malerein, no. 5, as lambs in the apse mosaic of Sts. Cosmas and Damian at Rome, and as volumina in the apse of St. John the Evangelist at Ravenna. From a passage of Eusebius of Caesarea De vita Const. 3,38: PG 20, 1097 we learn that Constantine had 12 columns set up symbolizing the apostles in the basilica of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem. At times the apostles are shown individually in scenes from Christ’s public life: in these cases it is the narrative context and the presence of particular attributes or gestures that allow their identification. Thus Thomas can be recognized putting his finger in the wound in Christ’s side in the episode of unbelief Ravenna, relief, National Museum: Corpus della scult. paleocr. altomedioevale di R., n. 6; Como, sarc. of Celsus: Ws pl. 243,3, and a figure hanging from a tree, as in the Brescia Reliquiary 4th c., is obviously Judas Iscariot. J. Ficker, Die Darstellung der Apostel in der Altchristlichen Kunst, Leipzig 1887; G. De Jerphanion, Quels sont les douze ap´tres dans l’iconographie chrtienne?: La voix des monuments 1 1930 189-200; K. K¼nstle, Ikonographie der Heiligen, Freiburg i.Br. 1926; P. Testini, Osservazioni sull’iconografia del Cristo in trono fra gli apostoli: RIA 11-12 1963 230-300; J. Myslivec, s.v. Apostel: LCI I, 150-170; J.G. Deckers – G. Mietke – A. Weiland, Die Katakombe Anonima di via Anapo. Repertorium der Malerein, Vatican City-M¼nster 1992; J.G. Deckers – G. Mietke – A. Weiland, Die Katakombe Commodilla. Repertorium der Malerein, Vatican City 1994; M. Minasi, s.v. Apostoli: TIP 124-126.Constantinian Bronzes – House of Constantine bronze coins holidaymapq

ROMAN. Imperial. Lot of six hundred forty-five (645) Constantinian … holidaymapq

Constantine the Great – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia holidaymapq

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