Cifteler for And justice is justice for Plato, regardless of the circumstances. The Republic’s authoritarian rule and social caste system reflect the rigidity of this geometric vision. If we read Plato quite literally (rather than as an ironic thinker, as we discuss in chapter 7), the inflexibility of his theoretical lenses appears to produce an equally unyielding political life. Aristotle criticizes Plato for trying to reduce the diverse, evolving political community to an unchanging, unitary state. Geometric categories and truths, Aristotle argues, are not the sort of standards by which human affairs can or should be measured. Aristotle aptly observes that when measuring things political, it is best to use a ruler that is flexible. In his Nichomachean Ethics, Aristotle states that we should not attempt to fashion our epistemological or ethical standards in politics with the precision of the carpenter’s square. Cifteler 2016.