Chennai Map Tourist Attractions on BIBLIOGRAPHY. Harry Barnard, Rutherford B. Hayes and His America (Russell & Russell, 1954); Kenneth E. Davison, The Presidency of Rutherford B. Hayes (Greenwood Publishing Group, 1972); Ari Hoogenboom, Rutherford B. Hayes: Warrior and President (University Press of Kansas, 1995); Ari Hoogenboom, The Presidency of Rutherford B. Hayes (University Press of Kansas, 1988). Chennai Map Tourist Attractions 2016.
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While past research has focused on mothers depression, particularly in the early years of children’s lives, research interest has expanded to include fathers and to look at the effects of both parents moods throughout childhood and adolescence. While in the past, there was much interest in the genetic predisposition to depression that parents passed on to children, more recent research has focused on the family environment depressed parents provide for their children. Risk Factors Parents depression affects children in three ways: direct biological effects of mothers depression in pregnancy on infants neuroendocrin e system and patterns of brain wave activity stress hormon es are higher in infants of mothers depressed in last trimester of pregnancy and in the months following birth, children have atypical patterns of frontal brain activity genetic predisposition to depression social context of children’s development parents withdrawn, unresponsive behavior with children, harsh and intrusive parenting behaviors, marital conflict, use of avoidance as a means of coping with problems When compared to children of nondepressed mothers, children of depressed mothers are more likely to be fussier, more irritable and tense, less happy as babies have higher rates of insecure attachments at twelve months have problems with anxiety, withdrawal, social difficulties as preschoolers continue to have similar problems in school and also have problems with attention to academic work Studies looking at how depression is transmitted from one generation to another identify parenting behaviors, marital conflicts, and patterns of family interaction as major factors. Parenting strategies of depressed parents appear to be a main Parents with Ongoing Negative Moods way to transmit problems early in life. Even if children inherit a genetic risk for depression from birth mothers diagnosed with major depression, toddlers do not show the fussy, irritable, unregulated behaviors thought to be the forerunners of depressed symptoms in children when adoptive mothers are highly responsive to their infants.