The line between childhood and adolescence was set by the Stoics at 14 years, although the first period of a human life was divided into two parts: 1 the first seven years, when the child does not participate in the Logos, the principle of rationality, whereas in the second part of this period, 2 from the seventh to the fourteenth year, this principle of rationality develops. In the first period the child is entrusted to the mother or nurse and the pedagogue. Charlotte Subway Map In these first steps of its education, the difference between pagan and Christian children amounts to nothing more than the fables and stories used, prayers, and particular customs. In the 4th c. the great pastoral Fathers counsel parents and educators on the formation of children John Chrys., De inan. gl. 19,1; 73,2-3. In antiquity the first seven years were unimportant for education, except in some exceptional cases: Plato thought elementary education should begin at six years Leg. I, 643, Aristotle at five Pol. 7,1336, Chrysippus at three in Quintilianus I,1,16. Elementary studies normally began at seven, whether in private or public schools or in the family. Instruction and education were not joined in antiquity. The first was delegated to the teacher, the second to the nurse and the pedagogue, who accompanied his little master to school and helped him in his studies. Poor children had little possibility of studying and could not attain highly qualified positions: e.g., Eunomius the Arian was the son of a peasant, and to avoid being one himself he was able to learn stenography, becoming the secretary of Bishop Aetius Greg. Nys., C. Eun. 1,50; or they could raise themselves with the help of a benefactor, like Augustine, who continued his studies thanks to the wealthy Romanianus C. Acad. II, 2,3. The children of slaves could study according to the needs or intentions of the master. In methods of teaching and study there was little difference between Christians and non-Christians: Christian professors followed pagan programs both before and after Constantine, with Christian elements gradually being added, e.g., prayers at the beginning and end of lessons Hymns of Clement of Alexandria, Paed.