Followers of Montanus, so called from the place where this heretical movement began, between Mysia and Phrygia. According to the Muratorian fragment 4, they had writings through which they spread their doctrines. The sect was founded in the 2nd c.: the name “Montanists” was much later Cyr. of Jer., Catech. XVI, 8; Did. Alex., Trin. III, 18; CTh XVI, 5, 48, but it survived and became definitive. Earlier writers used the circumlocution “heresy according kata to the Phryges” Euseb. HE V, 16,1; VI, 20,3, further shortened to “according to the Phryges” Epiph., Haer. XLVIII, 1; XLIX, 1 and thus “Cataphrygians” John Dam., Haer. LXXXVII. The movement, particularly widespread in Asia and active under various names, disappeared toward the 6th c., though there is still evidence of them in the 7th c., when the emperor Leo the Isaurian still sought their conversion. Its doctrinal cornerstones were the prophetic revelations of Maximilla and Prisca, marked by a severe ascesis conceding nothing to human nature, repudiation of the role of the hierarchy, identification of the Father with the Son, imposition of celibacy, and a claim to the discernment of spirits. Eusebius, Vita Costant. III, 64-65; P. de Labriolle, Les sources de l’histoire du Montanisme, Fribourg 1913, repr. New York 1980; T.D. Barnes, The Chronology of Montanism: JTS 21 1970 403- 408; D. Powell, Tertullianists and Cataphrygians: VChr 29 1975 33-54; F. Blanchetière, Le montanisme originel: RSR 52 1978 118-134; 53 1979 1-32; A. Strobel, Das heilige Land der Montanisten, Berlin 1980, 10-64; 222-291; Ch. Trevett, Montan ism: Gender, Authority and the New Prophecy, Cambridge 1996; Id., Montanist Inscriptions and Testimonia: Epigraphic Sources Illustrating the History of Montanism, Macon, GA 1997; A. Stewart-Sykes, The Original Condemnation of Asian Montanism: JEH 50 1999 1-22.