I. The region – II. Council. I. The region. Roman province created ca. AD 17 under Tiberius upon the death of its last king, Archelaus: it was under the jurisdiction of a procurator of equestrian rank who, when needed, was to receive military help from the governor of Syria. Our main source for Cappadocia’s administrative organization, which remained unchanged after its annexation to the empire, is Strabo XII, 1-2, 540C. It was centralized and bureaucratic, perhaps modeled on that of Egypt: the territory was divided into ten smaller units called strategiae, to which Pompey had added part of Cilicia to make an eleventh. The country was organized along feudal lines: the system went back to the pre-Seleucid era and had long endured in a territory which had never been conquered in depth or really Hellenized; the lower orders lived in small villages under the rule of local lords; there was also a multitude of slaves who were exported, through commercial channels, in large numbers as far as Rome, as several sources attest. Under Vespasian, Tiberius’s equestrian procurator was replaced by a consular legate, who also ruled Galatia, Paphlagonia, Pontus Galaticus and Polemoniacus, and Armenia Minor. Trajan left Armenia Minor and the districts of Pontus under the jurisdiction of the consularis of Cappadocia, while Galatia and Paphlagonia had a separate governor: this system remained unchanged until Diocletian’s reorganization of the provinces in the late 3rd c., which divided Cappadocia in two, in line with the general policy of breaking up the larger provinces into smaller units. The W part continued to be called Cappadocia: the smaller E part was briefly joined to Armenia Minor, but before the end of the 4th c. it became a separate province called Armenia Secunda.


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