Gaius Julius Caesar Germanicus, Roman emperor 37 41, son of Germanicus and of Vipsania Agrippina, nicknamed Caligula by his father’s soldiers, whom he imitated from childhood by wearing military boots caliga. Tiberius had demanded that the Senate designate as his successor either Caligula or his own grandson Gemellus: in 37 the Senate chose Caligula. An absolute monarch, he had himself worshiped as a living god, and his abuses of power made him unpopular with the Senate. He was killed by conspirators led by Chaerea. Scholars do not accept the tradition, originating with the Senate, that his political behavior was caused by madness, but rather that his behavior was consistent with his policy of affirming and consolidating absolute power. A. Garzetti, L’impero da Tiberio agli Antonini, Bologna 1960, 83- 109 and 598-602; M. Sordi, Il cristianesimo e Roma, Bologna 1965, 31-33 and 420 bibl.; Id., I Cristiani e l’impero romano, Milan 2 1990; S. Roda, Profilo di storia romana. Dalle origini alla caduta dell’Impero d’Occidente, Rome 2001.