I. The city – II. Council. I. The city. Civil and religious metropolis of Cappadocia in Asia Minor, reduced to a Roman province by Tiberius in AD 17 whence the name Caesarea Kaisa,reia; originally Mazaka; then, under Valens ca. 370, of Cappadocia Prima. Its ruins are at Eskisehir, SW of Kayseri central Turkey, which perpetuates its name. Evangelized in apostolic times, it had its martyrs: Mamas, Gordius, Julitta, etc. Its first known bishop was Alexander, arrested by Decius ca. 250. Gregory Thaumaturgus received episcopal ordination there. Other bishops, Firmilian and esp. St. Basil the Great, gave luster to the see, which extended its jurisdiction over the whole “diocese” of Pontus. In virtue of this almost patriarchal authority, the metropolis, after the creation of the patriarchate of Constantinople 451, had first place and the title of protothronos, and its titular that of archbishop, a precedence repeated in all the Notitiae episcopatuum, in the first of which Caesarea has five suffragan sees, including Nyssa. In the 6th-7th c. it produced the religious writers Theodore Askidas, Andrew of Caesarea and Gregory.