Budapest for The next sections of this chapter consider the impact of screening CHAPTER OUTLINE This chapter considers strategies used to encourage individuals with no evidence of disease to adopt health-enhancing behaviour or stop health-damaging activities. It starts by considering the simplest approach to this issue ? screening people for risk of disease as a consequence of either their genetic make-up or their behaviour, and whether this is sufficient to motivate or sustain changes in risk behaviour. The chapter then considers a number of more complex ways of motivating and maintaining behavioural change based on the degree of motivation an individual may have to achieve change. The first approach we examine is known as motivational interviewing. As its name implies, this has been used particularly with people with low levels of motivation to change their behaviour. The chapter then considers how effective educational programmes are in facilitating change, before examining approaches based on planning and problem-solving techniques, modelling and rehearsing new behaviours, and cognitive-behavioural strategies. The principles of each approach are outlined, and evidence of their effectiveness is considered. Budapest 2016.