Boston for Table Some of the common types of screening programme Type of screening Genetic risk for disease Early detection of disease or its precursors Behavioural risk for disease Possible outcomes of screening Routine subsequent screening for early detection of disease Preventive surgical procedures Medical or surgical treatment of any abnormalities found Behavioural change Example of detection BRCA, BRCA gene mutations for risk of breast and ovarian cancer Cervical screening Mammography Hypertension Smoking Sedentary lifestyle Poor diet SCREENING PROGRAMMES programmes on our physical and psychological health, before considering some of the more complex strategies that have been used to facilitate healthrelated behavioural change. Screening programmes A number of types of screening programme now exist see Table These include testing for genetic risk for breast and ovarian cancer, screening for early detection of breast disease through regular mammography, and screening for the behavioural risk for disease in the case of CHD. Each carries significant implications for those involved and brings particular benefits and challenges n Women identified as carrying the gene mutations increasing risk for breast cancer may choose to take preventive action such as breast removal before the onset of disease and will have to live with the knowledge of their risk for many years. n People identified as hypertensive may be placed on drugs for the rest of their lives. n Those found to have behavioural risk factors for disease may choose to make lifestyle changes that have implications for both them and their family. Genetic risk of disease We have now identified the genes linked to a number of significant diseases. Here, we focus on the implications of screening for just one of them ? the gene mutations that increase risk of breast and ovarian cancer known as BRCA and BRCA. Boston 2016.