Historical region of Country
Basil of Caesarea insists on human freedom. Without free will there can be no basis for praise or blame, and the possibility of merit is the first condition of any just judgment Hom. 6, 7. He rejects astrology in one homily and demonstrates in another that God cannot be the author of evil. Bolivia Subway Map Moral choice belongs to the person’s faculties and his will is free. Justice is more important than any other consideration and admits no compromise. There is no difference between venial and grave sins, since every sin is disobedience to God, who will judge all on the last day Reg. f., Pr: PG 31, 891-892. Christian justice must exceed that of the Scribes and Pharisees, and must be characterized by supererogation Mor. 80, 22. Starting from his fundamental horror of sin and zeal for justice, he ends in a detailed presentation of the upright life. As in Clement, Bolivia Subway Map every detail of life is examined. In the Moralia, Basil collects NT passages prescribing the good or forbidding the bad. In the long and short Rules he addresses the details of monastic life. Basil wanted the Rules to become the source of moral reform for the whole church, led by the monks’ example. In his homilies on the six days of creation, Basil shows the order, harmony and example of nature. The same God is revealed in creation and in the moral life.
His law is established in nature, so that fish migrate Hex. 7, 4 and swallows build their nests with regularity, perseverance and exemplary industry Hex. 8, 5. Love of God and neighbor, the end of the commandments, arises from an innate tendency. Bolivia Subway Map The heart of the person turns to the beauty and splendor of God, so that longing for God and seeking God’s love rises above everything else. United to God in continual prayer, love grows until it reaches perfection. Christ’s disciples are distinguished by their mutual love Mor. 5 and by the peace they show to all. Mutual love, like love of God, is a tendency innate in human beings, a seed that must be developed in the unity of Christ’s body.
In John Chrysostom we find the same insistence on human freedom and moral responsibility. Sin comes from the sinner’s will, not from any external cause Comm. Ps. 140, 7; all are given knowledge of what is right or wrong. The person can accept or reject God’s grace Hom. Hebr. 34, 2. As in Clement, Bolivia Subway Map free will is distinct from freedom. All have free will, but only Christ’s disciple can break the slavery of sin and live a truly free life Theod. 2, 5. God must be just: he will judge all people, and their present actions will determine their eternal destiny. God does not remain outside the person’s moral struggle: he is just and justifies. He does not preside over our contest like an impartial referee: he fights at our side against the devil. God’s law governs everything and gives the person an interior law. The natural law is able to guide the conscience to what is good and away from what is evil De statuis 12, 9. The same God who established the order of the universe formulated the moral order and requires of the person a life of order and moderation. Only sin is to be feared: nothing can harm the person who does not harm himself.