Historical region of Country
II. Iconography. One of the four great OT prophets, model of wisdom and type of the just man persecuted but freed by God: as such Daniel takes an active part in the judgment of Susanna and is depicted refusing to adore Nebuchadnezzar’s statue, beside the three young men in the furnace Rome, cemetery of Priscilla: 4th c.; cemetery of Callistus: 4th c.; Daniel was depicted to express the hope of salvation and resurrection from the dead.
1. This symbolism is attributed to the most popular episode numbered by Eusebius of Caesarea Vita Const. 3,49 among the su,mbola of Constantine that of Daniel’s condemnation to the lions’ den; the scene appears in cemetery paintings from the 3rd c. Rome, cemetery of Callistus, area of Lucina: 220 230; cemetery of Domitilla, gallery of the Flavii: second half 3rd c. and on sarcophagi, probably for the first time on a sarcophagus of the Museo Nazionale di Napoli mid-3rd c. and, in time, on a great variety of monuments Brescia, Museo Cristiano, lipsanotheca: 4th c.; London, British Museum, glass cup from St. Severinus, Cologne; Cologne, Rmisch-germanisches Museum, blue glass cup; St. Petersburg, Museum of the Hermitage, glass cup from Podgoritsa: 5th c.; Cividale del Friuli, Tesoro del Duomo, cameo: mid-5th c.; London, British Museum, ivory pyx: 6th c. and on barbarian lamps, bronze medallions and bronze fibulae. Daniel is shown in the attitude of an orans among the lions, standing, youthful, beardless, from the 4th c. mostly naked in Roman depictions, usually clothed in nonRoman depictions Istanbul Archaeological Museum, fragmentary stele: 5th c.; ibid., plutaeus: 5th c.; Ravenna, Museo Nazionale, sarcophagus of the Traditio legis, right side: 5th c.; Ravenna, church of S. Vitale, sarcophagus of the exarch Isacius: 5th c.; Ravenna, baptistery of S. Giovanni in Fonte, stucco: 5th c.; Ravenna, S. Apollinare Nuovo, plutaeus: mid- 6th c.; Ecija, sarcophagus: 6th c.; Rome, Museo dell’Alto Medioevo, ivory pyx from Nocera Umbra: 6th c.; Washington, ivory pyx from Moggio: 6th c. the presence here of two angels holding the lions’ jaws shut has no parallels; these last also differ in the number of lions, often more than two Cagliari, Museo Archeologico Nazionale, funerary relief: late 3rd or early 4th c.; Alcaudete, sarcophagus: first half 5th c.. Sometimes also depicted among the lions helping Daniel, in reference to the second condemnation Dan 14:31-39, is the prophet Habakkuk Vat., Museo Pio Crist., sarcophagus 135, right side: second quarter 4th c.; ibid., sarcophagus of the two brothers: second third 4th c., or Habakkuk and an angel Vat., Museo Pio Crist., child’s sarcophagus: first third 4th c.; ibid., sarcophagus 189: first third 4th c.; ibid., sarcophagus 175: second quarter 4th c..
The same characters also appear in a fuller depiction of the same episode, i.e., at the moment when the angel seizes Habakkuk by the hair and carries him to Daniel to relieve his hunger; the scene is very frequent in the East and can assume various aspects Istanbul Archaeological Museum, plutaeus from Thasos: 5th c.; Rome, Basilica of S. Sabina, wooden doors Daniel among the lions is absent: second half 5th-6th c.; Trier, ivory pyx: 6th c.; Rome, Museo dell’Alto Medioevo, ivory pyx from Nocera Umbra: 6th c.; London, British Museum, ivory pyx: 6th c.. 2. The episode of the killing of the Babylonian dragon occurs between Daniel’s first and second condemnations: though never painted, it was depicted on other classes of monument; Daniel offers a cake to the dragon, rearing up or wrapped around a tree-trunk, often near an altar with lit fire divine worship of the reptile Vat., Museo Pio Crist., sarcophagus lid: second third 4th c.; Rome, Villa Doria Pamphili, sarcophagus; London, British Museum, fragment of glass plate; Brescia, Museo Cristiano, lipsanotheca: 6th c. and before the entrance to a temple Crozon, Ard¨che, sarcophagus of the Coll. R. Giraud.
3. Finally, Daniel is depicted among the prophets, with rotulus closed or unrolled, for the first time in the Gospels of Rabbula fol. 8v: 6th c. and again, among others, in chapel no. 12 of the convent of Bawit 6th-7th c..