Historical region of Country
The oldest monument with a Christian cross is held to be the Palmyra inscription 136; then those of Dura Europos and Medula in Syria 232 and 197 198. In Western Christian cemeteries, no preConstantinian cross has been dated; the inscription of St. Rufina at S. Callisto in Rome is dated no later than the end of the 2nd c. After the finding of the cross at Jerusalem, it appeared on sarcophagi as the crux invicta Wilpert, Sarcofagi, pl. 142,3 and 146,3 which, in iconography, assumed the connotations of a symbol or trophy tropaion of victory, Best places to travel to in USA whether carried like the Roman labarum or substituted for, e.g., the sepulcher as anastasis, as it appears in post-Constantinian passion sarcophagi. It is the Christus victor with a cross-headed scepter who celebrates his victory over death Barberini diptych, Louvre, first half of the 6th c. or appears, dressed as emperor, with the enthroned cross in the center ivory, Muse des Beaux Arts, Lyons, also 6th c.; and Christus cosmocrator who is surrounded by nature participating in his crucifixion.
As for depiction of the crucifixion, apart from the 2nd-c. Palatine graffito a crucifix with ass’s head it does not appear until the 1st half of the 5th c. The oldest Christ naked on the cross so far known is in the British Museum 420 430?; that on the wooden door of S. Sabina top left panel must be slightly later. In the East, a dramatic depiction of the crucifixion with Christ on the cross wearing a colobium developed in the 2nd half of the 6th c.: it appears in its mature phase in the gospels of Rabbula 586. A similar but more symbolic type, very common in later Christian art, is that of the ampullae of Monza and Bobbio. The first cemeterial example of the depiction of the crucifixion is in the cemetery of S. Valentino 7th c.. A separate mention is required by the golden crosslet obtained by the technique of beating out a thin gold leaf placed in contact with a mold of metal, ivory or hardwood, with the decorative motif in relief.
Though having the form of a cross, varying from Latin to Greek with arms more or less extended, the ornamentation reproduced on its surface did not necessarily contain elements proper to Christian culture; indeed, we frequently find animal interlacing, typical Mediterranean and Byzantine motifs; sometimes the human face, rarely the whole human body, reproductions of coins, simple punched motifs and, finally, Christian figurative motifs such as christograms, crosses, eagle, dove, deer etc. The use of the golden crosslet is connected with the funeral rite of inhumation, since it was sewn, as the holes in the corners of the arms attest, onto the funeral veil put over the face of the deceased, whose high social rank it also denotes.