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The line of this evolution is contained in the history of the Typikon a book with the system of rubrics and their interpretation, and the calendar with hagiographical and topographical information, the highest authority for regulating celebratory life. The Byzantine Church produced various Typika, but three were the most important: 1 the Typikon of the Great Church of Christ Hagia Sophia of Constantinople, 2 the Typikon of St. Sabas Palestinian and 3 the Typikon of Studion Constantinopolitan. Best places for summer vacation in USA Each of these represents a local tradition based on other liturgical books, which had also developed gradually according to time and place book of hours, lectionary, psalter, euchology, various hymnals for Propers.

The Byzantine liturgical tradition is therefore quite diverse in its origins, since the various geographical areas had the freedom to observe their own Typika. Historical vicissitudes led to the encounter, fusion or respective elimination of the Typika, resulting in the creation of a fairly uniform liturgy in the orthodox world from the end of the Middle Ages. The reform of these three Typika took place in the context of political-social catastrophes that interrupted liturgical life, followed by a work of reconstruction and completion of the lost heritage: 1 at Jerusalem, the Persian invasion of 614 and the devastation under Caliph Hakim in 1009; 2 at Constantinople, the iconoclastic crisis 726 843 and the Latin conquest of the city 1204 1261. These reforms involved the reorganization, enrichment or reduction of the daily-weekly cycle and the movable Easter cycle. They are connected with anonymous liturgists, or with great Palestinian names like St. Sabas, St. Sophronius, patriarch of Jerusalem d. 638, St. Andrew of Crete d. 726, St. John of Damascus d. 749 and St. Cosmas of Maiuma d. 760; or with Constantinopolitans like patriarchs Anthimus 536 and St. Germanus d.

733, St. Theodore the Studite d. 826, and St. Joseph of Thessalonica 832. The manuscript tradition attests the state and diffusion of the Typika according to periods and regions, so much so that it would be more correct to speak in the plural of Sabaite and Studite Typika. While Studite Typika were quite widespread until the 12th c. and then were increasingly confined to Mt. Athos and Byzantine S Italy palaeo-Calabrian, Calabro-Sicilian and Apulian families, the Sabaite Typika took definitive root at Constantinople from the 13th c. and so became, at a late date, the present Typikon of the Great Church, homonymous with the archaic one. Thanks to the invention of printing first ed. Venice 1546, this Constantinopolitan modification of the Typikon of St. Sabas became the normative book of the liturgy of Byzantium and the churches in communion with it Eastern Chalcedonian patriarchates or born from its missions. In Russia, its gradual adoption began in the 15th c., becoming definitive with the three 17th-c. editions. Expert 19th-c. Russian liturgists such as A. Dmitrievskij, I. Karabinov, I. Karataev, A. Nikolskij and M. Skaballanovich studied, collected and published its liturgical MS source, throwing much light on this complex evolution and showing, according to M. Arranz, that the myth of Byzantine liturgical immobility is precisely that: a myth.

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