CALENDAR I. Origins of the Christian calendar – II. The early Christian calendars. The Christian calendar is the list, month by month and day by day, of the feasts observed in the church, and only these. We distinguish the temporal Sundays, Easter, Christmas etc. from the sanctoral feasts of the martyrs and saints. Here we will not speak of the temporal Harnoncourt – Auf der Maur 9-63; Handbuch der Ostkirchenkunde 2, D¼sseldorf 1989, 182-191, or of the controversy over Easter A. Strobel, Texte zur Geschichte des fr¼hchristlichen Osterkalenders, M¼nster 1984; s. v. Pasqua or of the dependence on the Jewish calendar S. Safrai – M. Stern eds., The Jewish People in the First Century 2, Assen 1987, 834-864, but only of the sanctoral. I. Origins of the Christian calendar. Best places in Hawaii The oldest known anniversary celebrated is that of Polycarp of Smyrna, martyred 23 February ca. 156 167. Cyprian of Carthage Ep. 12,2; 39,3 and Gregory of Nyssa V. Greg. Thaum. attest that it was a local custom to keep a sort of register of martyrs and bishops so as to celebrate their feast on the proper day, just as families preserved the memory of their dead Tert., Exh. cast. 11,1; Cor. 3,3. Each church had a calendar of its own martyrs and bishops different from that of the neighboring churches Soz., HE 5,3. Lists nonliturgical of bishops appear from the 2nd c. as proof of the apostolicity of an episcopal see for Rome: Hegesippus Eus., HE 4,22; Iren., Adv. haer. 3,3,3. At Byzantium the diptychs contained the list of the dead and esp. the list of the succession of bishops, to be pronounced during the liturgy. For S Italy see F. Lanzoni, Le diocesi d’Italia, Faenza 1927, 27-29.
II. The early Christian calendars. 1 The oldest preserved examples of a Christian calendar are the Depositiones episcoporum and martyrum, drawn up at Rome and inserted in the Chronography of 354 RAC 19, 1177-1191. 2 The Calendarium Syriacum of 411, actually a Greco-Arian calendar of Nicomedia from ca. 360 362 AASS Nov. 2,1, LII-LXV. 3 The fragmentary Gothic calendar, ca. 400, a document attesting the Gothic presence in Italy ZNTW 1, 308-335; AB 31, 274-291; P. Heather – J. Matthews, The Goths in the Fourth Century, Liverpool 1991, 128-130; Patrologia IV, 492-493. 4 The Calendarium Turonense, written by Perpetuus of Tours d. 491, whose general lines are in Gregory of Tours Hist. Franc. 10,31. 5 The Calendarium Carthaginense, ca. 505, actually a martyrology from the 2nd half of the 4th c. 6 The calendar of Oxyrhynchus, 535 536 AB 42, 83-99. 7 The Coptic calendar of Alexandria, 6th c. DACL 8, 654-657.
8 The marble calendar of Carmona in Andalusia, 6th-7th c. 9 The Martyrologium Hieronymianum, compiled in N Italy shortly after 431, of which the Gallican archetype of Auxerre is datable to 592. 10 The calendar of Corbie, 7th c. 11 The calendar of Willibrord, first decade of the 8th c. CPL 2037. 12 The Martyrologium of the Venerable Bede d. 735, from which must be reconstructed the calendar that he used. 13 The Calendarium Sinaiticum, which seems to have been compiled in Africa in the 8th c. 14 The Catalogus Sanctorum Hiberniae, 8th c., of the Irish saints. 15 The Calendarium Anglicum, 8th c. 16 The calendar of Ratisbon, 8th c. 17 The calendar of Mainz, 781. 18 The Calendarium Rhenaugiense, which is actually from Nivelles, 8th-9th c. 19 The Montecassino calendars, 8th-9th c. 20 The Irish calendar, 821 831. 21 The Bologna calendar, 9th c. 22 The marble calendar of Naples, 840 850. CPL 2028-2046b; Repertorium 6, 589-595; DACL 8, 624-667; LACL 3 419-420; J.P. Kirsch, Der stadtrmische christliche Festkalender im Altertum, M¼nster 1924; E. Mahler, Handbuch der j¼dischen Chronologie, Hildesheim 1967; A. Cappelli, Cronologia, Cronografia e Calendario Perpetuo dal principio dell’¨ra cristiana ai nostri giorni, Milan 7 2002; Th. Klauser, Ein Kirchenkalender aus der rmischen Titelkirche der heiligen Vier Gekrnten, in Id., Gesammelte Arbeiten zur Liturgiegeschichte, Kirchengeschichte und Christlichen Arch¤ologie, M¼nster 1974, 46-70; Ph. Harnoncourt – H. Auf der Maur, Feiern im Rhythmus der Zeit 2,1, Regensburg 1994, 9-63, 136-144; R. Aigrain, L’hagiographie, Brussels 2 2000, 13-31, 404-405; for the synoptic tables of the Roman calendars from the Depositio martyrum on see J.P. Kirsch, Der stadtrmische christliche Festkalender im Altertum, M¼nster 1924, 221-237; Harnoncourt – Auf der Maur, Feiern im Rhythmus der Zeit, 298-299, 300-319; W. Geerlings ed., Der Kalender. Aspekte einer Geschichte, Paderborn 2002; A. Di Berardino, Liturgical Celebrations and Imperial Legislation in the Fourth Century, in B. Neil et al. eds., Prayer and Spirituality in the Early Church 3, Everton Park 2003, 211-232.