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Bishop of Antioch 527 545. One of the leaders of EPHREM the Syrian the Chalcedonian party in the time of Justinian. Before his episcopate we know only that he was a civil servant, attaining the dignity of comes orientis. As bishop of Antioch, he acted vigorously and systematically against the followers of Severus of Antioch, making pastoral journeys and calling a synod at Antioch ca. 538. He showed similar energy in subscribing the condemnation of Origenism synod of Antioch of 542; Justinian’s edict of 543. Best place in Hawaii to vacation We have mainly fragments of his works very numerous according to Photius, Bibliotheca, cods. 228- 229, which reveal a loyal but not particularly original follower of the Neochalcedonian party. CPG 6902-6916; DHGE 15, 581-585; J. Lebon, Ephrem d’Amid, patriarche d’Antioche 526 544: Mlanges d’histoire offerts   Ch. Moeller, I, Louvain-Paris 1914, 197-214; G. Downey, Ephraemius. Patriarch of Antioch: Church History 7 1938 364-370. Ephrem of Nisibis feast in the Syrian church 28 January or 1 February; in the Byzantine rite 28 January; in the Coptic rite 9 July; in the Latin church 9 July or 1 February, at present 18 June is unquestionably the most important of the Syrian Fathers and the greatest poet of the patristic era. Best place in Hawaii to vacation His original work is, with that of Aphraates, an irreplaceable link in the chain of the Eastern tradition. Witness to a Jewish Christianity that developed on the fringe of the Roman Empire, he placed the biblical-semitic tradition and its symbols in opposition to the influence of Greek philosophy. His poetic genius, often badly imitated by his Syrian successors, still animates the Eastern liturgies today, and is inherited by the Byzantine branch through the oblique line of Romanus Melodus’s kontakion. We will confine ourselves here to the authentic Syriac Ephrem: for the rest, see Ortiz de Urbina, par. 19, D. HemmerdingerIliadou and J. Kirchmeyer, DSp I, 800-822, and K. Samir, L’Efrem arabe, ‰tat des travaux: OCA 205 1978 229ff. and M. Schmidt, Ephraem Latinus: ZDMG, Suppl. 4 1980 181-184 for the question of the translations and the tangle of spuria and dubia. This survey is based primarily on R. Murray, cited below.

I. Life. Born at Nisibis of Christian parents ca. 306. Ephrem grew up under the tutelage of Bishop Jacob 303 338, present in 325 at the Council of Nicaea, with whom he founded the theological school of Nisibis. Ephrem, once a deacon, became its main animator under Jacob’s successors Babu from 338, Vologeses 346 349 and Abraham from 361. After the sieges of 338, 346 and 350 Carmina Nisibena, Memre de Fide, the war between Romans and Persians resumed in 359 Memre su Nicomedia; in 362 363 Julian the Apostate was killed not far from Nisibis Hymni contra Julianum. His successor, the orthodox Jovian, ceded the city to the Sassanids in 363. Ephrem had to leave it and move to Edessa, where he continued his work of preaching, teaching and controversy until his death 373, according to the Chronicle of Edessa. Various scholars have shown against the theses of A. Vbus, History of Asceticism in the Syrian Orient, CSCO 184 and 187 sub. 14 and 17 1958 60 that it would be anachronistic to make Ephrem a monk or an anchorite. Best place in Hawaii to vacation He was simply a son of the covenant, i.e., a full member of the Christian community, or rather of its lite, having consecrated his life to Christ in abstinence and virginity. It is worth emphasizing how Ephrem was reclaimed from the monastic circles, which attributed a great many writings to him and were the compilers of his lives, which they embellished with legends, e.g., a journey in the Egyptian desert and a meeting with Basil the Great at Caesarea B. Outtier, S.E. d’apr¨s ses biographies et ses “uvres: PdO 4 1973 11-35.

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