Spain. Bishop Pacian of Barcelona d. before 392; RAC 15, 659-660 battled an enduring paganism in Spain. His homily De baptismo SC 410, 148-164 is important, treating, to a mixed audience of baptized and competents Bapt., 1,1; cf. De paenit. 2,2; Tract. 11,1, of the new birth in baptism, with the purification of the baptized from the original guilt of Adam, by whom they had been subjected to death Bapt. 1,3. The new birth implied a break with the habits and sins of paganism: idolatria, crudelitas, Best family vacations in USA fornicatio, luxuria, etc. Bapt., 6,5, and produced freedom from eternal death unto eternal happiness Bapt., 6,6-7. J.M. Nº±ez Moreno, Il De baptismo di Paciano di B., in S. Felici ed., Esegesi e catechesi nei Padri, 2, IV-V c. Rome 1994, 105-112; C. Granado: SC 410 1995 32-34, 297-306. Africa. At the time of Augustine, the N African church counted only a few pagans Cons. ev. 1, 14, 21.20, 29.25, 39; Serm. 302, 19. Besides the baptized, the Christian communities were in part composed of catechumens cathecumeni = audientes: Aug. Serm. 132,1. Baptism of children was practiced, and not just in sickness or mortal danger. Others were accepted as infants or as children with particularites, esp. with the first signatio crucis and the administration of salt among catechumens, though their baptism took place later Aug. Conf. 1, 11, 17; De anim. 1, 12. Instruction, therefore, took into account: 1 pagan and Jewish converts; 2 candidates for baptism, including children Symb. 1,1, from Christian families; and 3 baptized infantes S. Poque, Un souci pastoral d’Augustin, la persvrance des chrtiens baptiss dans leur enfance: BLE 88 1987 273-286.