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Our understanding of physical punishment as a disciplinary technique is less detailed than we would like because the measures of physical punishment in studies often refer only to presence or absence in the past week or month and do not describe the severity or circumstances of its use. We rarely have information on how both parents use this method, and when we do, we get a greater picture of family aggression in representative samples. Box reveals that the effects of physical punishment differ somewhat from those of verbal punishments. Spanking in the first year is related to aggressiveness at age two and slightly lower performance on a cognitive test at age three though spanking at age two does not appear to have these effects. In another study of spanking in the first two years of life, the children of European America n mothers who spanked had problem behaviors after entering school at age five, but the children of African American parents who actually spanked more did not show these effects nor did Latino children who received the least amount of early spanking.