best best cities to visit

best best cities to visit

best best cities to visit

best best cities to visit

best best cities to visit

best best cities to visit

best best cities to visit

best best cities to visit

best best cities to visit for Social insurance”the state distribution of benefits based on compulsory individual contributions for old-age, unemployment, and sickness” is typically seen as an earned right based on income replacement from work. In contrast, social assistance programs, providing targeted assistance to needy groups based on means/income tested basis, involved greater administrative intervention, encroachment on privacy, and generally entailed a stigmatization of recipients. social security 773 Although access to social security has been recognized as a fundamental human right (in articles 22 and 25 of the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted by the United Nations General Assembly), with a variety of social security systems in place in more than 170 countries today, positive evaluations of the material benefits of social security systems, particularly its role in alleviating poverty and redistributing wealth have been challenged by Marxian and neo-Marxian scholars who see social security programs predominantly in reference to the regulation of labor. Thus, expansive social security policies are seen as central to mitigating civic disorder; and minimalist ones crucial to reinforcing work norms. Contemporary scholarship, however, drawing heavily on post-structural approaches (especially the work of Michel Foucault) is increasingly concerned with social security’s disciplinary and regulative functions in post-industrial societies, particularly in the context of social security cutbacks in virtually all advanced capitalist democracies at the turn of the century. Deeply skeptical about claims about social security’s effectiveness in attenuating inequality in capitalist societies, post-structural critics suggest that its primary function in society is in relation to the production of identities and their effective social management. In contrast to direct modes of the regulation of the poor (for instance, in 18th century workhouses), the modalities of power in liberal democracies rely on the production of subjects via the many micrological channels through which power operates. best best cities to visit 2016.

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