Berlin for These gene mutations are responsible for breast and ovarian cancer in approximately ? per cent of individuals with an inherited susceptibility to the disease Hodgson and Maher Fortunately, while the risk of cancer associated with them is high, they are relatively rare within the population, and only ? per cent of cases of breast cancer result from these mutations. The Cancer Genetic Service for Wales Brain et al. provides an example of how a programme identifying genetic risk of developing breast cancer and BRCA gene mutations can work. In this programme, both men and women whose doctors think they may be at heightened genetic risk for breast cancer are referred to the service. Referral is followed by a letter to the patient from the service asking them to complete and return a family history questionnaire, which would give detailed information about their family history of cancer. Once returned, this is scored by medical geneticists, who identify participants’ level of risk for developing cancer the same as the general population, moderate or high. Patients are informed of their risk level by letter and through telephone contact. Berlin 2016.