Bergama for His reason is that promulgation of the rules, regulations, and laws needed to order collective life does little in itself to secure the peace unless these rules, regulations, and laws are backed by the threat of force. Some form of punishment for lawbreakers and transgressors is necessary. Covenants without swords, Hobbes tersely remarks, are mere words. The Florentine political theorist Niccol² Machiavelli (1469 1527 maintains that good politics ensue from good laws. Yet Machiavelli, who along with Hobbes established modern realism, goes on to insist that there cannot be good laws where there are not good arms. Force, for Machiavelli, always lurks in the shadows of politics. Indeed, he believed that it was often necessary for leaders to create a show of force. Bergama 2016.

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