Historical region of Country
With respect to the nascent phenomena of Christian pilgrimages, until the start of the 4th c. we observe no differences from the normal means of travel. The Peregrinatio Egeriae allows us to glimpse some changes underway in lodging, at least during the journey itself. The mansiones did not have a good reputation, so clergy were prohibited from staying there; specific structures were thus set up for the assistance of pilgrims and clergy. Belgium Map Hospitia arose esp. in cities like Rome and Jerusalem that were pilgrimage destinations deversoria peregrinorum. Ecclesiastical contacts also followed the route of the cursus publicus. After the Council of Serdica of 343, the acts were circulated in the West to obtain the signatures of the absentees; the list of these is given in the MS of the Archive of Verona: the subscriptions were according to the order in which they were collected, along the usual route followed by the cursus publicus see Codex Veronensis LX: letter to the church at Mareotis: Turner, doc. 21; esp. Pietri, Storia del crist., 284. In the early medieval period one notes a change: with the progressive withdrawal of civil authorities came an increase in the role of the church and of ecclesiastical and monastic structures, which almost exclusively replaced the places for rest and hospitality along the road network, even after the drastic reduction in the volume of exchange and movement of persons. The collapse of the empire in the West led also to the decay of the cursus, even if some essential structures remained; in the East it lasted longer, as the Codex Justinianus attests.
CUTHBERT, saint Cuthbertus, ca. 634 20 March 687. Saint, bishop of Lindisfarne Scotland. A native of Northumbria, he entered monastic life in 651. He was at Melrose, Ripon and Lindisfarne, where he became prior and, in obedience to the decisions of the Council of Whitby, got the Roman Easter 664 adopted. Retired to eremetical life on Farne Island 675, he was sought out by pilgrims from all of England. He was elected bishop, first of Hexham then of Lindisfarne, and abbot of the cloister three years before his death. In his last years he worked hard preaching and converting the local people. He is commemorated 20 March as the patron of Anglo-Saxons and of sea-travelers. From 999 his relics were preserved in the cathedral of Durham, but the sanctuary was destroyed during the Reformation and its contents dispersed: still there today are the reliquary, some pieces of furniture and a cross. Cuthbert wrote a monastic rule lost. We have some biographies of Cuthbert: a Vita Cuthberti by an anonymous confrere CPL 1379, and two by Bede, one in prose CPL 1380, another older one in verse CPL 1381. Bede gives considerable attention both to Cuthbert’s role as a pastor and to his numerous miracles and visions Rosenthal, emphasizing his sufferings as a testimony to faith Foley, along the lines of Gregory the Great’s thought.
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