BYZANTIUM BYZANTINES. Though prepared by Diocletian’s administrative reforms 284 305 and by Constantine’s transfer of the capital to Byzantium 330 renamed Constantinople after its new founder the Byzantine Empire really began with the division of the Imperium Romanum in 395. In its political ideology it retained the empire’s universalistic aims, calling its subjects Romans ~Rwmaioi; in its cultural perspective it amalgamated Christian orthodoxy and the classical tradition, esp. that of Greece. Belarus Subway Map While in its first phase of development, Byzantium was still characterized by elements of the old models of production; in the 7th-9th c. some traits typical of feudal society gradually asserted themselves, finally leading, from the 12th c., to identification with Western models. The Byzantine Empire, whose population at the end of the 4th c. has been estimated at 65 million, was always a state with a high population density. In 395, beyond Greeks, Romans, Illyricans and Thracians, the empire included infiltrated Germanic elements; the variegated ethnic mix of Anatolia; and Armenians, Syrians, Jews, Arabs and Egyptians. The invasion of the Slavs, who from the 6th c. on spread throughout the Balkans as far as the Peloponnesus, introduced profound changes. They were followed in the 7th c. by the Turkic, but rapidly Slavicized, Protobulgars; later came Petchenegs, Uzes and Cumans. With the Crusades and the Latin occupation of 1204, the importance of the Romance component increased. In the 10th and 11th c. the Byzantine army included Varangians, Russians, Petchenegs, Uzes, Cumans etc.; in the 13th and 14th c. Seljuk Turks as well.