CALLINICUS Nicephorium. Now near Raqqa, Callinicus was a fort on the left bank of the Euphrates, a station on the way to Commagene, N Mesopotamia and Dura Europos Ammianus 23,3,7. The founding of the city goes back to Alexander the Great, who named it Nicephorium. Under Seleucus II Callinicus 265 225 BC the name was changed to Callinicus. Annexed to the Parthian kingdom, in AD 35 it came under the rule of Tiridates III, and at the time of the Flavii under the direct rule of Rome. Its character as a large commercial center and the rapid expansion of Christianity in this area of ancient Mesopotamia lead to the assumption that the city had a Christian community very early. Baton Rouge Subway Map Eusebius of Caesarea confirms this indirectly when he says that the land of the Parthians, of which Callinicus was then a part, was assigned to the evangelistic work of the apostle Thomas HE III 1,1. In the war between Julian and the Persian king Sapor, the city hosted the Roman emperor 363, who arrived with a grand display of arms and offered it military support. Callinicus achieved notoriety again in 388 because of the religious riots there. On the occasion of the feast of the Maccabees, some local monks set fire to a chapel used by the Valentinians, a Christian sect at Callinicus that went back to the 2nd c. At the same time a local synagogue was burned down at the instigation of the bishop, destroying some precious objects. The comes Orientis, in sensitivity to the influential Jews, informed Theodosius, who reproved him for not punishing the arsonists and requiring the bishop of Callinicus to rebuild the synagogue at his own expense. Ambrose of Milan intervened in the affair, obtaining from the emperor the revocation of the two measures, but he had to suffer the consequences of what to Theodosius seemed an undue interference.
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