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Cenobium did not just mean a physical site of monastic life like the term monasterium, which simply meant a habitation of monks, or even of just one monk or of those particular groups of monks called Sarabaites Cass., Conl. 18,10 but designated a type and a way of practicing monastic ascesis together with others who lived in the same place. Baltimore Map Cenobites, then, were those who professed the highest, best and most complete form de optimo genere monachorum of monastic life and who trained in those gymnasia the cenobia to aspire to the heights of anchoritic discipline Cass., Conl. 18,11 in a well-tried realism and realization of virtue. A. Boon – L.Th. Lefort, Pachomiana latina. R¨gle et p®tre de s. Pach´me. ‰p®tre de s. Thodore et Liber de s. Orsiesius, Louvain 1932; Pl. de Meester, De monachico statu iuxta disciplinam byzantinam, Vatican City 1942; L.Th. Lefort, ’uvres de s. Pach´me et de ses disciples CSCO 159, Louvain 1956; A. V- bus, History of Asceticism in the Syrian Orient, II, Louvain 1960 CSCO 197; A. de Vog¼, La communaut et l’abb dans la R¨gle de s. Beno®t, Paris 1961; J. Leroy, Le cnobitisme chez Cassien: RAM 43 1967 121-158; DIP 2, 761-764; A. de Vog¼, Vie commune et vie solitaire: La R¨gle de s. Beno®t, t. VII, commentaire doctrinal et spirituel, SC 186 bis, Paris 1977, 75-99; S. Pricoco, L’isola dei Santi. Il cenobio di Lerino e le origini del monachesimo gallico, Urbino 1978; DIP 7, 1420-1428 A. de Vog¼, Regole cenobitiche dell’occidente: DIP VII, Rome 1983, 1420-1428; var. aus., Dall’eremo al cenobio. La civilt  monastica in Italia dalle origini all’et  di Dante, Milan 1987; P. Tamburino, Koinonia. Aspetti ecclesiologici del cenobitismo Pacomiano nel IV secolo, Rome 1989; T.G. Kardong, The Monastic Practice of Pachomius and the Pachomians: StudMon 32 1990 59-78; G. Jenal, Italia ascetica atque monastica, Das Asketenund Mnchtum in Italien von den Anf¤ngen bis zur Zeit der Longobarden ca. 150250-604, 2 vols., Stuttgart 1995; E. Wipszycka, Contribution   l’tude de l’conomie de la congrgation pach´mienne: JJP 26 1996 167-210; A. de Vog¼, Cenobita, Cenobitismo: Dizionario Enciclopedico del Medioevo 1, Rome 1998, 375; M. Migallah Dirias, La koinon­a pacomiana come itinerario formativo alla vita comunitaria. Attualit  dei principi educativi testimoniati negli scritti di Pacomio e dei suoi discepoli, Rome 2002; S. Pricoco, Il monachesimo, Rome-Bari 2003, 39-43, 57-63, 85-97.

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