AKSUM Axum. Town in N Ethiopia, capital of the first Ethiopian kingdom, founded mid-2nd c. AD or shortly before. From numismatic and epigraphic evidence we can reconstruct the approximate chronology of the Aksumite dynasty which seems to have ended toward the beginning of the 8th c. and with it also the chronology of the penetration of Christianity in Ethiopia. The Aksumite period included the first phase of Ethiopian literature 4th-6th c. in which many works were translated from the Greek. J.T.B. Bent, The Sacred City of the Ethiopians, London 1896; Deutsche Aksum-Expedition 4 vols., Berlin 1913; R. Pankhurst, The Greek Coins of Aksum: Abba Salama 6 1975 70-83; S.C.H. Munro-Hay, The Munro-Hay Collection of Aksumite Coins Supplement to the Annals 48, Naples 1986; S.C.H. MunroHay et al., Excavations at Aksum: An Account of Research at the Ancient Ethiopian Capital Directed in 1972-4 by the Late Dr Neville Chittick Memoirs of the British Institute in Eastern Africa 10, London 1989; S.C.H. Munro-Hay, Aksum: An African Civilisation of Late Antiquity, Edinburgh 1991; E. Bernand – A.J. Drewes – R. Schneider, Recueil des inscriptions de l’‰thiopie des priodes pr-axoumite et axoumite. Introduction de Fr. Anfray. I: Les documents; II: Les planches; III: Traductions et commentaires. A. Les inscriptions grecques, Paris 1991-2000; D.W. Phillipson, Ancient Ethiopia: Aksum: Its Antecedents and Successors, London 1998; R. Fattovich et al., The Aksum Archaeological Area: A Preliminary Assessment Oriental University Institute. Department of studies and research on Africa and the Arab countries. Archaeological Laboratory. Working paper 1, Naples 2000; Archaeology at Aksum, Ethiopia, 1993-7, by D.W. Phillipson et al. Memoirs of the British Institute in Eastern Africa 17; Research Committee of the Society of Antiquaries of London 65, London 2000.
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