Asian tourist destinations for In a country such as Japan, where scientists are renowned for their ability to develop applications, rather than for pure inventiveness, the majority of R& D activity takes place in commercial concerns in which all the returns can be captured by the firm. Multinational enterprises (MNEs) take an increasingly important role in the international economy and, as their size and scope increase, so too does their level of diversification in different industries.R& D is necessary to take advantage of the network of activities and resources that such MNEs can mobilize. However, it is likely that the MNE will wish to maintain the core R& D function at the home location.
Somewhat paradoxically, in rapidly changing, technologically advanced, and intensely competitive industries, such as electronics and semi-conductors, R& D partnerships between competing firms are very common, especially in comparatively short-term arrangements that focus on specific projects with designated distribution of returns. Projects often lead to products manufactured quickly and cheaply and at low cost”the profit from such products relies upon the value-added component.
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Asian Tourist Destinations
In other R& D-intensive industries such as pharmaceuticals, aeronautics, and robotics (in which continuous innovation is required), the very high level of return, required to meet the expenses of lengthy, highly skilled, labor-intensive periods of work, necessitates high retail costs of products.
Asian tourist destinations 2016.