Ashtarak City of Afghanistan for e., the value of the next-best alternative). participation rate: the percentage of persons (civilians over the age of 16) in the population who have joined the labor force. partnership: a type of firm organization, where two or more individuals (often) with complementary skills and knowledge, create a firm. Unlike corporations, where liability is limited to the extent of an individual’s investment in the firm, partnerships are characterized as having unlimited liability. patent: a legal means of appropriating a return on innovative activity, whereby an inventor is allowed to operate as the only seller of an innovation for a specific period of time. per capita income: income per person, typically measured by dividing a nation’s real GDP by the number of persons in the population. Ashtarak City of Afghanistan 2016.