ARLES I. The city – II. Christian origins – III. The church of Arles – IV. The primacy of Arles – V. Councils. I. The city. Arles Theline, Arelate, Arelatensis Urbs was established at the crossing of the Rhone by the E-W road called Via Aurelia on the Italian side and Via Domitia on the Spanish side. The ancient and medieval town of Arles arose on a small limestone hill 23 m. above sea level on the left bank of the main branch of the Rhone the Grand Rh´ne. The oldest evidence concerning the town is from the 6th c. BC. From the 2nd c. BC, the Rhone’s course seems to have been controlled or split into a canal in such a way as to allow the site to develop its double role as a maritime and river port. At Caesar’s initiative, in 46 BC Nero Tiberius established a colony of veterans there; a surrounding wall was built at that time, now only minimally identified. Only the city center seems to have had an orthogonal urban plan, whereas later extensions included areas beyond the Rhone on the right bank in the Trinquetaille quarter a medieval name. Augustus made it a great commercial city, its importance confirmed by the associations of riverboatmen nautae Druentici, utricularii corporati Arelatenses, nautae Atrici et Ovidis and sailors navicularii marini Arel.. This importance was ratified by Constantine, who established a mint there in 313 which continued in operation through the 5th c. prior to that of Ostia, and by his successors; from 328 it was called Constantina. From the late 4th c., certainly from 418, the see of the Praetorian Prefecture of the Gauls was moved there from Trier. Ausonius called it Arelate Gallula Roma. Arles later became Visigoth 476 480, and Ostrogoth with Theodoric 508; it was besieged by the Franks, who conquered it only in 536, with the whole of Provence. II. Christian origins. Legends of the evangelization of Arles arose in the 5th c., linked to the apostolate of St. Trophimus, claimed by unreliable legends to be a disciple of St. Peter, and during the 11th c., in connection with the saints of Bethany Mary Magdalene, Martha and Lazarus, a Life BHL 54885492 of whom places Magdalene’s tomb at Arles. These legends reflect later beliefs. The reality is quite different. It is possible that Trophimus was the city’s first bishop first half 3rd c. and that St. Genesius was martyred there 25 August 250. It is certain, on the other hand, that there were some apostates at Arles during the persecution of Decius 250, since Bishop Marcian the city’s first trustworthily attested bishop, accused of Novatianism by Cyprian of Carthage refused them reconciliation Cypr., Ep. 68,1 and 5. The church of Arles enters history with him. III. The church of Arles. The names of the bishops are known with gaps for the 4th c., and systematically from the 5th to 8th c. beginning from Bishop Patroclus 412 426: the list was compiled by J.-R. Palanque. The importance of the local church is demonstrated by the wealth of literary sources and by urban and suburban archaeological evidence, including the famous cemeteries of the Alyscamps and Trinquetaille, which have yielded the richest collection of Christian sarcophagi in the West, after Rome. The city’s first cathedral 4th c., in the tower quarter called of the Nuns des Mourgues, has been under excavation 2003. It was moved, probably by Bishop Hilary d. 449, near the law courts to the site of the present cathedral, now dedicated to St. Trophimus but originally established as the basilica beati ac primi martyris Stephani. The primitive cathedral was converted into a woman’s monastery by the celebrated bishop Caesarius 500 543, who put his sister Caesaria in charge of the community. Caesarius attached a monastic cell and a house for the sick to the new cathedral. The life of the Christian community has been reconstructed based on the sermons of St. Caesarius and monastic life based on the rules he drew up Regula ss. virginum, 523; Recapitulatio, 534; Regula ad monachos, undated. Information on Christian worship and the saints is available from the same sermons, from the Passio s. Genesii BHL 33045 and from the lives of Sts. Hilary BHL 3882 and Caesarius BHL 1508-1509. Including churches and monasteries, the sources attest eight Christian sanctuaries within the urban zone and four outside the walls. IV. The primacy of Arles. Arles owed its eminent role among the churches of Gaul to Constantine, who called a council there in 314 to put an end to the Donatist problem in Africa. Bishops from the Gauls, Brittany, Spain, Italy, Dalmatia and Africa participated, also discussing the date of Easter, traditores, letters of ecclesiastical communion litterae formatae, the ministry of deacons, excommunication and ordinations. Struggling with Vienne for the primacy of Viennensis, after the execution of the heresiarch Priscillian, Arles also took a position in the Felician schism within the Gallic church, which was ended not by the Council of N®mes 394 but by that of Turin 398. Having failed to obtain the primacy, the bishop of Arles saw Pope Zosimus 417 confer on him metropolitan rights over the old Narbonensis and a certain authority over the churches of Gaul. Subsequent popes did not renew the latter privilege, and Hilary 430 449 had difficulties with Rome because he wanted to retain it. It was renewed for St. Caesarius 502 542 by Pope Symmachus, however, who conferred on him the pallium and the apostolic delegacy for Gaul, and the Roman dalmatic on his deacons 514 privileges renewed by Vigilius, Pelagius and Gregory the Great. With the Arab invasion 711 732 Arles began to decline, as it entered the Middle Ages.Arles – France Tourism the travel specialist to France and Belgium holidaymapq

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