ARCHAEOLOGY, CHRISTIAN

early-christian-archaeology-first-annual-conference-july-2015

ARCHAEOLOGY, CHRISTIAN I. Definition and aims – II. History – III. Present situation and outlook. I. Definition and aims. Christian archaeology as a historical science studies the monuments and material culture of early Christianity from its origins to the end of the ancient world ca. 600. It reconstructs within the framework of ancient culture the life of Christian communities as expressed in the evidence of material culture. Christian archaeology is thus a discipline of its own within broader archaeological studies, and not a mere “tool of historical theology” Kaufmann; nor is its main task to “provide church history with the materials of historical evidence” Andresen. Like the other historical sciences, esp. that closest to it, i.e., classical archaeology, it must take the results of neighboring fields into account in its own research, esp. those of classical archaeology, ancient history, classical philology, Byzantine studies, Jewish antiquities, early church history, liturgy and patristics; in turn, Christian archaeology makes the material it has scientifically studied and examined available to these other fields. If Christian archaeology has attained the character of a modern historical discipline, this is the result of a long phase of evolution which began with the first archaeological investigations in the Christian field in the 16th c.; this characterization, however, is not entirely accepted, esp. by some Protestant and Catholic scholars of historical theology, who understand Christian archaeology as an auxiliary science of early church history and patrology, ignoring its art history dimension. II. History. Christian archaeology had its beginnings in a specific historical situation: the European Renaissance and the resulting cultural and religious changes which gave a new direction to thought in general. The new historical interest that came into being, particularly the study of antiquity including its artistic and monumental aspects led to a rediscovery, initially hesitant and almost fortuitous, of the early Christian monuments of antiquity. Cyriac of Ancona, who bore the title of “antiquarius,” copied Christian and other inscriptions with particular scientific interest during his trips to Greece and the Greek islands in 1435–1438 and 1444–1448. Andrea Fulvo, in the final chapter of his Antiquitates Urbis Romae 1525, described the city’s early Christian churches, while Onofrio Panvinio 1529–1568 wrote a treastise on Christian antiquity De ritu sepeliendi mortuos apud veteres christianos et de eorumdem coemeteriis, Louvain 1522. Significantly, of 43 cemeteries listed from literary sources, Panvinio knew only three firsthand. This notwithstanding, his epitaph in S. Agostino, Rome, could rightly praise him as vir ad omnes et Romanas et Ecclesiasticas Antiquitates e tenebris eruendas natus a man born to rescue all antiquities, both Roman and Ecclesiastical, from darkness. This interest in antiquities received new impetus and direction from the turmoil of the 16th-c. Reformation and Counter Reformation. Learned Protestants and humanists, in their rejection of the church’s forms of worship, particularly condemned the cult of the saints and relics, appealing to the way of life and teaching of the primitive church. Thus arose the first great works of ecclesiastical history, e.g., the Historia ecclesiastica secundum centurias of the “Studiosi et pii viri in urbe Magdeburgica” 1559ff., in which early Christian monuments were cited polemically for the first time. Against this justification of Protestantism through an appeal to primitive Christianity, the Counter Reformation also appealed to the history of the primitive church; besides literary records, monuments now also acquired importance by reason of their undeniable objectivity as evidence of early Christian life and faith. The spiritual center of this tendency can be considered to be the Oratory of S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome, founded by St. Philip Neri, which produced the founder of ecclesiastical historiography, Cesare Baronio Baronius. In his monumental work Annales ecclesiastici 1588–1607, which responded to Protestant ecclesiastical historiography on the church’s behalf the original title was, significantly, Historia ecclesiastica controversa and which became a fundamental work for future ecclesiastical historiography, Baronius made use of the monuments of early Christianity, not only citing them as proof, but reproducing them. Baronius also describes the sensational chance discovery of a catacomb on the Via Salaria with paintings and numerous inscriptions, which made a great stir at the time: though certainly not the first discovery of its kind, it came at a moment when the spiritual climate was ripe for its full appreciation. A Fleming, Philipp de Winghe d. 1592, copied the catacomb’s paintings before its destruction Biblioteca Vallicelliana, codex 6, as did the Dominican Alfonso Ciacconio Cod. Vat. Lat. 5409. During the same period Philip Neri frequented the catacombs of St. Sebastian, the only ones known to him, for spiritual exercise and prayer. In the spiritual climate of the time, antiquarian interest in the early Christian monuments combined with religious and apologetic interest in the same monuments spurred by the Counter Reformation. In this spirit and influenced by the humanist Pompeo Ugonio and the Oratory, the Order of Malta’s representative at Rome, Antonio Bosio, began exploration of the catacombs. He was the first to visit them systematically, particularly from 1590–1600, study them, take reliefs, prepare plans and copy paintings. His research, esp. the identification of individual cemeteries, presupposes a truly unique knowledge of the sources index cards in the Oratory Library, Bibl. Vallicelliana, Rome. He set down the results of his research in Roma sotterranea, an extensive description of the catacombs those already known and those discovered by him, as well as paintings, sarcophagi, lamps, gold-glass and other objects found therein. The work, published posthumously in 1632, had a great effect on his contemporaries. The scientific exploration of the catacombs effectively began with him, and with it Christian archaeology became a scientific discipline. Nevertheless, the theological-apologetic interest that had led to the rediscovery and study of the catacombs assumed a dominant role and determined the direction of research, placing the catacombs in a particular light that limited their evaluation and concentrated historical research on cemeteries and related monuments, adduced against Protestant scholars as proof of the continuity of the church’s doctrine from the beginning until modern times. The resulting romantic vision of martyrdom and the martyrs is unfavorably evident in imitators who were not up to the level of a Baronius or a Bosio, and the study of monuments came to a standstill until almost the end of the 17th c. The various editions of Bosio’s Roma sotterranea are an index of the enormous interest aroused by this fundamental work Lat. tr.: Rome 1650; reprinted Cologne 1659 and Paris 1671; the material prepared by these was now worked on by others, including Bosio’s friend the Fleming Jan l’Hereux Johannes Macarius, whose Hagioglypta sive picturae et sculpturae sacrae antiquiores, praesertim quae Romae reperiuntur, explicatae can be seen as a first study of Christian iconography publ. 1856 at Paris by R. Garrucci. Also in response to confessional disputes, to the discussion over sacred images and to the iconoclastic tendencies of the Reformation, we find the De picturis et imaginibus sacris liber unus tractans de vitandis circa eas abusibus et de earum significationibus of Johannes Molanus, professor at Louvain Louvain 1771 and the Discorso delle immagini sacre e profane of Cardinal Gabriele Paleotti Bologna; Lat. tr.: Ingolstadt 1794, as well as some treatises written by Protestant theologians as late as the 18th c. among others Friedrich Sponheim d.J., d. 1701. The extent to which the theological controversies harmed objective research is evident from the first systematic exposition of Christian archaeology, the Strasbourg theologian Balthasar Bebel’s Antiquitates ecclesiasticae Strasbourg 1679. This praiseworthy work takes no account of the basic results reached by Bosio in his study of the catacombs. The same is true of the work of another erudite Protestant, Joseph Bingham’s Origines ecclesiasticae or the Antiquities of the Christian Church London 1708–1722. But even at Rome the study of these monuments came to a halt. The excavations made in the catacombs during this period were not based on scientific methods but were carried out by private citizens or monasteries in search of martyrs and relics. The resulting destruction aroused such criticism that the popes Urban VIII, Alexander VII and Clement XI instituted the position of custodian of relics and cemeteries to look after the catacombs. The custodian Raffaele Fabretti published Greek and Latin inscriptions from the catacombs in volume VIII of his Inscriptionum antiquarum explicatio Rome 1699; 1702. His successor Marcantonio Boldetti continued this study and discovered new cemeteries, and after more than thirty years of research published his Osservazioni sopra i cimiteri de’ santi martiri ed antichi cristiani di Roma Rome 1720. This was the first extensive collection of new material since Bosio, but without the latter’s system or method, finds were not accurately described, nor their provenance indicated. Protestant critics Acta eruditorum, Leipzig 1° Nov. 1722 rightly pointed out the prevalent apologetic tendency of the work, which tried to confirm the fides cipporum; indeed, the work’s main intention was to answer criticisms, both Protestant and Catholic, of the search for relics and martyrs in the catacombs see, e.g., H. Dodwell, De martyrum paucitate in primaevis Christianorum persecutionibus. Dissertationes Cyprianicae, Oxford 1686. Having to uphold the confessional dispute and justify the cult of the martyrs, the work was not so much a scientific analysis of the catacombs as a canonical treatise on the relics of the saints. At any rate Boldetti proposed to Pope Clement XI the setting up in the Vatican of a collection of Christian epigraphy, thus laying the foundation for a Christian archaeological museum; even minor collections of inscriptions from the catacombs now in various Roman churches, including what remains of a collection in the atrium of S. Maria in Trastevere are due to his initiative. In 1736 G.G. Bottari was charged by Clement XII with preparing a new edition of the Bosio’s Roma sotterranea Sculture e pitture sagre estratte dai cimiteri di Roma 13, Rome 1737–1754. The work, still influenced by the antiquarian tradition of the Roman Counter Reformation, presents Bosio’s engravings accompanied by a text that contributes nothing to the knowledge of the catacombs. Very useful, on the other hand, are some catalogs of finds from the turn of the 18th c., which tell us of objects now lost: Bartoli, Le antiche lucerne sepolcrali figurate raccolte dalle cave sotterranee e grotte di Roma Rome 1691; Ciampini, Vetera monumenta in quibus praecipue musiva opera illustrantur Rome 1690, 1699; Id., De sacris ædificiis a Constantino Magno constructis Rome 1693; Buonarroti, Osservazioni sopra alcuni frammenti di vasi antichi di vetro ornati di figure, trovati ne’ cimiteri di Roma Florence 1716. Characterized by greater historical rigor were the works of L.A. Muratori d. 1750: Novus thesaurus veterum inscriptionum Milan 1739–1742; Antiquitates Italicae medii ævi Milan 1738–1742. Nonetheless, the study of monuments lost its importance until the mid-19th c. Many works in the tradition of the French Encyclopaedia took early Christian monuments into account, e.g., C.O.F. Clarac, Musée de sculpture II Paris 1841, in D. Raoul-Rochette, Sur l’origine  des types imitatifs qui constituent l’art du christianisme Paris 1834 and Tableau des catacombes de Rome Paris 1837. The detailed description of the city of Rome edited by C. Bunsen and E. Platner Stuttgart 1830–1842 included early Christian basilicas and catacombs. During this period, however, no direct research was done on the Roman catacombs; in fact it was the catacombs of Naples which now attracted scholarly attention C.F. Bellermann, Ãœber die ältesten christlichen Begräbnisstätten und besonders die Katakomben Neapels, Hamburg 1839, and interest in Christian monuments was growing outside Rome F. von Quast, Die altchristlichen Bauwerke von Ravenna, Berlin 1842, where until that time research had almost exclusively been concentrated, impelled by confessional controversies. The reaction in Romanticism to the prevailing classicism in contemporary art brought a new appreciation of the Christian Middle Ages as opposed to Classical Antiquity. The monuments of early Christianity were consequently rediscovered, and their study was no longer strictly tied to theological aspects. In this context of a nascent science of art history in Germany, early Christian art was discovered and defined for the first time, e.g., by C.F. von Rumohr 1785–1843 and F. Kugler 1808–1858. From this new interest in Late Antique and early Christian art arose the first architectural studies Valentini, La patriarcale basilica Lateranense, Rome 1832, 1834; Id., La basilica Liberiana, Rome 1839; Id., La basilica Vaticana, Rome 1845; H. Hübsch, Die altchristlichen Kirchen, Karlsruhe 1862; F. von Quast, Ãœber Form, Einrichtung und Ausschmückung der ältesten christlichen Kirchen, Berlin 1853, paralleled by studies of medieval churches made in France, Germany and England. At the same time we see in these countries a spread of neo-Gothic art, followed in sacred art by neo-Romanesque and the imitation of early Christian architecture see the lively debates on the reconstruction of the basilica of S. Paolo fuori le Mura at Rome after the fire of 1823: E. Pallottino, Revival paleocristiani 1764–1870. Architettura e restauro. L’interpretazione delle basiliche di Roma, Rome 1995. Toward the mid-19th c. the study of the Roman catacombs received new impetus. The Jesuit father P. Marchi resumed systematic study of the catacombs, departing from Bosio’s results and topographical method. His student was the young G.B. de Rossi 1822–1894, who applied a rigorous scientific method to the study of the catacombs, thus becoming not just the promoter of this methodology but also the founder of Christian archaeology as a modern historical science for the study of the monumental evidence of early Christianity. To him we owe the discovery in 1849 of the crypt of the popes in the catacombs of S. Callisto, which he had discovered some years earlier. For the first time all available factors formation of terrain, geological structure, excavating technique, epigraphs, paintings, graffiti, etc. were methodically used to obtain reliable data. From 1863 the results of his research were published rapidly and in exemplary fashion in the Bullettino di Archeologia Cristiana, founded for that puporse, and presented in the fundamental work Roma sotterranea Rome 1864– 1877, still valuable today. Thanks to de Rossi’s basic research, Christian archaeology shared, in methodological approach and objectives, in the progress and enthusiasm that the historical sciences, esp. the study of antiquity, aroused in the 19th c. The impetus he gave and the general reawakening of ancient studies and archaeology in this period favored the renewed scientific analysis of Christian monuments outside Rome, which up to that time had been the center of attention. F. Bulic began the important excavations of Manastirine Salona in Dalmatia, while in France E. Le Blant brought together in great corpora the sarcophagi and early Christian inscriptions of Gaul Recueil des inscriptions chrétiennes de la Gaule, Paris 1856– 1865 and 1892; L’épigraphie chrétienne en Gaule, Paris 1890; Études sur les sarcophages chrétiens antiques de la ville d’Arles, Paris 1888; Les sarcophages chrétiens de la Gaule, Paris 1886. Interest now turned to the Christian monuments of N Africa and the East. Count M. de Vogüé published his monumental works, still indispensable today, on Les églises de la Terre Sainte, Paris 1860, and on the Christian monuments of Syria La Syrie centrale, Paris 1865–1877. P. Delattre and St. Gsell studied the monuments of Carthage and Algeria. The German architect Salzenberg examined in 1854 the church architecture of the Eastern capital Altchristliche Baudenkmale in Konstantinopel. The importance of early Christian art in the Eastern Roman Empire was rightly emphasized by the Viennese scholar J. Strzygowski 1862–1941, who passionately maintained the superiority of the early Christian art of the pars orientis of the empire. Strzygowski thus initiated the hoary “East or Rome” controversy 1901, which died down only in the 1930s when it gave way to a more balanced view of the problems. The results of these studies are set down in works on the art of Asia Minor Kleinasien, ein Neuland der Kunstgeschichte, Leipzig 1903; Amida, with a contribution by G.L. Bell, The Churches and Monasteries of the Tur Abdin, Heidelberg 1919; Die Baukunst der Armenier und Europa, Vienna 1918 and on Coptic art Catalogue général XII, Musée Le Caire, Vienna 1904. The early Christian monuments of Asia Minor have also been explored by the English NT scholar W.M. Ramsay Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia, Glasgow 1895–1897. Postclassical Greece now too began to be considered by historians: in 1936 G. Droysen, by the discovery of the Hellenistic world and the overcoming of the classicist conception of historiography, opened the way to a new understanding of the final period of antiquity. This new approach is evident in A. Mommsen’s Athenae Christianae Leipzig 1863. But this tendency found its most important expression in two fundamental works by the Viennese school which, by stressing those aspects that concerned the history of art, led to a new evaluation of the art of Late Antiquity, no longer seen as just a product of the decline of Classical Antiquity: F. Wickhoff, Wiener Genesis, Vienna 1895, and A. Riegel, Spätrömische Kunstindustrie, Vienna 1901. Research after de Rossi, however, was not influenced by these innovative works, nor by the extension of studies to the Christian and Late Antique monuments of the Roman Empire as a whole. In this field, in fact, we find mainly works of an encyclopedic type, such as the Storia dell’arte cristiana nei primi otto secoli della chiesa of R. Garrucci Prato 1873–1880, and later the large, excellent collections of J. Wilpert Die römischen Mosaiken und Malereien der kirchlichen Bauten vom 4. bis zum 13. Jh., Freiburg 1916; Die Malereien der Katakomben Roms I-II, Freiburg 1903; I sarcofagi cristiani antichi, Freiburg 1929–1936. These works are still an indispensable collection of material, though their scientific analysis, which, esp. in the iconographic part, essentially comes down to an interpretation of the paintings tinged with a certain apologetical tendency could already be considered out of date at the time of publication. It seems clear that its lack of respect for the results of the history of Late Antique art and its concentration on mainly iconographical questions of a theological-hermeneutical nature led archaeological research on the early Christian period into a state of sterile isolation. Because of the lack of a proper chronological structure and the failure to insert Christian monuments into the artistic and cultural history of Late Antiquity, these monuments lost their real value, esp. regarding their theological interpretation as evidence of the primitive church. Research into the history of Late Antique art, which received a strong impetus esp. in the 1930s e.g., Rodenwaldt, Delbrueck, L’Orange, provided a new basis for situating and evaluating early Christian monuments in terms of art history. It was thus that F. Gercke clarified the chronology of 3rd- and early 4th-c. Christian sarcophagi, by starting from Roman-pagan ones, while L’Orange’s study of the relief decorations of the arch of Constantine succeeded in attributing some Christian sarcophagi to the same workshop, thus making an important contribution to 4th-c. Christian plastic art. J. Kollwitz, in an excellent work, studied the Late Antique and early Christian sculpture of the Eastern empire in terms of art history. Our picture of Christian art in antiquity is continually being modified, in part by excavations, which often bring to light evidence of the primitive church as part of a wider context. The first excavations aimed at finding a Christian monument were those made in 1835 and 1850 in the transept of S. Paolo fuori le Mura, Rome, in search of the apostle’s tomb. Excavations in Trier cathedral in 1848–1858 also pertained to Christian archaeology, whereas activity at Rome remained essentially limited to de Rossi’s important exploration of the catacombs. Important contributions to the knowledge of early Christian art and architecture were provided by the French excavation campaigns in N Africa Delattre, Gauckler, Gsell, Egypt Cledat, Quibell, Kaufmann, Asia Minor Ephesus by Heberdey; Korykos and Meriamlik by Guyer, Herzfeld and in the Adriatic region Salona by Bulic; Aquileia by Swoboda, Niemann, etc. 20th-c. excavations have produced an unexpected increase in archaeological materials, providing an important contribution to the study of Christian antiquity. Excavations have been made in nearly all the provinces of the Roman Empire: N Africa Algeria, Tunisia and Libya, Palestine Jerusalem, Bethlehem, Gerizim etc., Syria Antioch, Haurân, Gerasa, Qualat Seman etc., by Morey, Krenken, Naumann, Lassus, Tschalenko, Kraeling etc., Asia Minor Church of St. John of Ephesus by Keil, Hörmann; hippodrome, Hagia Sophia, Imperial Palace at Istanbul by Talbot Rice, Schneider, Brett, Spain Tarragona, S France, the Rhineland, N Italy Milan, Ravenna, Greece Macedonia, Epirus, Thessaly, Attica by Orlandos, Soteriou, Lemerle, Pelekanides and others. III. Present situation and outlook. Among the most important discoveries were those made during the excavations by Yale University and the Académie des Inscriptions in the 1920s and 30s at Dura Europos, a Roman garrison town on the Euphrates. The ruins of a synagogue were unearthed, as well as those of the only known example of a Christian church in a private house, which is also the oldest known Christian church building: both are from the first half of the 3rd c. The walls of the two buildings had extensive painted decorations now preserved at Damascus and Yale with OT and NT scenes; they are the oldest Jewish and Christian paintings known to us C.H. Kraeling, Excav. at Dura Europos, Final Report VIII, 1, The Synagogue, New Haven 1956; C. Kraeling, Excav. at Dura Europos, Final Report VIII, 2, The Christian Building, New Haven 1967. The new problems flowing from this important discovery have resulted, esp. in the last decades, in debates Weitzmann, Strauss, Gutmann, Brandenburg, Stichel on the problem of the origin of early Christian art, its possible derivation from older Jewish art, the beginnings of ancient miniature painting Geyer and its role in the evolution of early Christian iconography. Particularly important are the excavations done in the 1940s at the direction of Pius XII beneath the basilica of St. Peter in search of Peter’s tomb, which the tradition located there; these excavations are clear evidence of the link of Christian archaeological research to that of classical archaeology. Parts of a Roman necropolis with rich sepulchral buildings were found Von Hesber, Mielsch, Gärtner, and in the middle of these a simple construction of modest dimensions dating from AD 160. This evidently circumscribed the point at which the tradition of the Christian community of the second half of the 2nd c. located the tomb of the prince of the apostles: the explorations thus made accessible the evidence of a nearly 2000-year-old Christian cultic tradition that is also a moment of fundamental importance for universal history B.M. Apollonj Ghetti, A. Ferrua, E. Josi, E. Kirschbaum, Esplorazioni sotto la confessione di S. Pietro in Vaticano, Vatican City 1951; Ward-Perkins, Toynbee; Thümmel. Other excavations carried out in the city of Rome Krautheimer, Josi, Perrotti, Prandi, Deichmann, Tschira, Stettner, Brandenburg, esp. during the preparatory work for the Holy Year 2000 Cecchelli, Guidobaldi, Pronti, have clarified the architectural history of early Christian churches and cemeteries; they also led to the discovery of a new cruciform basilica Fiocchi Nicolai and various previously unknown baptisteries 5th-6th c. of urban churches S. Cecilia, S. Marcello, S. Clemente, S. Croce etc.. This improved knowledge of the architecture of the first Roman churches has led to new discussions and attempts at reconstruction of early church furnishings and liturgical rites DeBlaauw, Guidobaldi, Brandenburg. Knowledge of the catacombs and their painted decoration has been notably enriched by the discovery and consequent protection by the Pontifical Commission for Sacred Archaeology which oversees the exploration and preservation of the Christian catacombs of a private catacomb, almost completely painted, near Via Latina A. Ferrua, Le pitture della nuova catacomba di via Latina, Vatican City 1960; Tronzo; Camiruaga. Architectural research of classical archaeology has given new impetus to the study of the catacombs, which we have begun to explore and study as architectural monuments, and seeking to clarify their origins. Helpful in this sense are the research of L. Reekmann on the region of Lucina, Gaius and Eusebius in the catacomb of St. Callisto 1967 and 1988, F. Tolotti on the catacomb of St. Priscilla and Pretestato 1970, 1977, 1980, Fasola in the catacomb of St. Thecla 1970, Pergola in the catacomb of Domitilla 198586 and Guyon in the catacomb of Sts. Peter and Marcellinus 1987. The results of these and numerous other studies, conducted with modern archaeological criteria in the subterranean cemeteries and on the venerated tombs of the martyrs, provide a new framework regarding the origin of the catacombs Brandenburg, Reekmans, their development and function V.F. Nicolai, F. Bisconti, D. Mazzoleni, Le catacombe cristiane di Roma. Origini, sviluppo, apparati decorativi, documentazione epigrafica, Regensburg 1998 and their decoration A. Nestori, Repertorio topografico delle pitture delle catacombe romane, Vatican City 1975; Deckers, Mietke, Weiland. The explorations and excavations carried out in the Neapolitan catacomb of St. Januarius It. Gennaro by U. Fasola have brought surprising results and substantially increased the pictorial and mosaic heritage of the catacombs 1975. These studies have made an essential contribution to clarifying the history of the cult of the martyrs, to which individual works based largely on archaeological material see V. Saxer are also dedicated. The enormous growth of material through the explorations and excavations at Rome and in the regions of the Roman Empire now permit a comprehensive view of the development of Christian art, its related iconography and the material culture of the primitive church; but it urgently needs collection and systemization. A very useful summary is given by Testini’s manual and esp. by his Le catacombe e gli antichi cimiteri cristiani 1966. Nearly a century ago Kautzsch had already attempted to clarify the evolution of Late Antique capitals by a systematic study Kapitellstudien, Berlin 1936. In the 1930s R. Krautheimer and his collaborators began a systematic architectural study of Rome’s early Christian churches Corpus basilicarum christianarum Romae, Vatican City 1937–1977. Another work by R. Krautheimer Early Christian Architecture, Harmondsworth 1975 is the first attempt at a systematic exposition of early Christian architecture. The available material is enormous, all the more so since a collection “in corpus” of Christian church buildings in the individual regions of the empire e.g., Syria: Tchalenko, Lassus; Algeria: Christern; Egypt: Grossmann; Aquileia, Noricum: Menis exists only in outline. The same is true for mosaic floor art, whose survey by regions has long been postulated by the science, even though the whole of the material is impossible to survey because of its immense size, which increases annually e.g., Greece: Spiro, Pelekanides, Atzaka; SyriaLebanon: Donceel-Voute; Jordan: Piccirillo; Cyprus: Michaelides; Israel: Ovadiah; Rome: Guidobaldi; Ravenna: Farioli; burial mosaics: Duval. Early Christian sarcophagi have been partially published in new regional collections Spain: Sotomayor; Ravenna: Kollwitz, Herdejürgen and are also comprehensively collected in the Repertorium der christlich-antiken Sarkophage I, RomOstia, Wiesbaden 1967; II, Italien, Dalmatien, Museen der Welt, Mainz 1998; III, Frankreich, Algerien, Tunesien, Mainz 2003; IV, Konstantinopel, Griechenland, Kleinasien, Syrien, Mainz 2004; G. Koch, Frühchristliche Sarkophage. Handbuch der Archäologie, Munich 2000. Renewing an earlier collection of Christian inscriptions by de Rossi and Silvagni, A. Ferrua published Inscriptiones Christianae urbis Romae, Vatican City 1956–1980. Regional collections have been published in recent decades for, among others, Greece Bees, Bandy, Syria Jalambert, Mouterde, Africa Février, Duval etc., Spain Vives, the Rhineland and Gaul Gose, Boppert, Gauthier etc.. Some classes of minor arts have also been published works in ivory: Volbach; goldglass: Morey, Engemann, Pillinger, while the enormous quantity of lamps is being slowly made public in catalogs of collections and excavations. The study of Late Antique pottery has also made tremendous progress in recent decades, providing useful data on Late Antique centers of production and commerce and on the history of settlements through dating of the pottery, as well as providing an indispensable method for the dating of stratigraphic excavations Hayes, Salomonsen, Mackensen and others. The study of architectural ornaments capitals, bases, etc., in the wake of Kautzsch’s work, is setting itself similar tasks; the modification of forms, methods of manufacture and production in specific centers, the preference for marble from Eastern quarries in Late Antiquity and the frequent reuse of elements of ancient architectural decoration remains in new architectural contexts, esp. in churches Pensabene, Brandenburg, give an idea of the passage from the ancient world to the Medieval and Byzantine world Deichmann, Sodini, Herrmann, Zollt, Strube, Pensabene. Dedicated to this problem of the passage from pagan antiquity to the Christian Middle Ages a central problem of modern research are not only some comprehensive studies, e.g., that of E. Kitzinger, Byzantine Art in the Making, London 1977, but also particular studies conducted from new perspectives, such as 1 town-planning in the cities of the Late Antique city period and their transformation into Christian cities Février, Duval, Reekmans; R. Krautheimer, Rome, Profile of a City, Princeton 1980 etc., 2 the problem of the continuity, or lack of it, of urban life and the urban infrastructure until the early Middle Ages, 3 the decentralization of ancient urban town planning and the new centers of Christian worship N. Duval, Les premiers monuments chrétiens de la France, Paris 1995–1996 and 4 the change of burial practices burial in cities and in places of worship Harris, Ward-Perkins, Paroli, Delogou, Meneghini, Santangeli Valenzani and others. Further examples are the recent excavations at Rome Imperial Forum, Crypta Balbi, etc.; the origin of centers of pilgrimage and monasteries as nuclei of Christian settlement Tchalenko, Reek- mans, Christern, Weitzmann, Grossmann, Korol, Lehmann and others; studies indicative of compact areas of settlement with their structural implications of economy and settlement, the development of religious centers, church buildings and secular architecture Syria: Tchalenko, Villages antiques de la Syrie du Nord, Paris 1953–1958; Strube, Ulbert; the in-depth study of the monuments of a Christian city F.W. Deichmann, Ravenna, Baden-BadenWiesbaden 1958–1974; T. Ulbert, G. Brands, Resafa I-VI, Mainz 1986–2002 or territory province as, e.g., Raetia W. Sydow, Kirchenarchäologie in Tirol und Vorarlberg. Die Kirchengrabungen als Quellen für Kirchenund Landesgeschichte vom 5. bis in das 12. Jh., Vienna 2001. These examples show the process of Christianization of the cities and give an overall view of ecclesial organization almost entirely missing in the written sources. These studies, which have made an essential contribution to the understanding of Christian antiquity and the beginnings of medieval Christendom, are characterized by the indispensable interweaving of Christian archaeology with the study of Late Antiquity. This mutual penetration, now typical of modern research that applies modern methods of excavation and research architectural reliefs, photogrammetry, dendrochronology, etc.; Sforz, Cramer, Brandenburg, allows us to reconstruct the transitional phases of the ancient world and to identify the role played by Christianity as the dominant force in ancient society from the 4th c. on. This new, modern approach to Christian archaeology is demonstrated by a variety of great displays that present the results of investigations into Late Antique and Christian culture in exhaustive catalogs Age of Spirituality, Late Antique and Early Christian Art, New York 1977–1978; Spätantike und Frühes Christentum, Frankfurt 1983–1984; Aurea Roma, dalla città pagana alla città cristiana, Rome 2000; Roma dall’antichità al medioevo. Archeologia e storia, Mus. Naz. Rom. Crypta Balbi, Milan 2001; Christiana loca. Lo spazio cristiano nella Roma del primo millennio, Rome 2002. These studies also show how Christian archaeology has changed from its beginnings in theological Kontroverstheologie and apologetic controversy to become a modern historical science, using archaeological discoveries to delineate a history of art and culture in the final phase of the ancient era. At the same time this material is put at the disposal of the theological and historical sciences, which use it to reconstruct the history of the primitive church, its institutions and forms of worship, as well as the beginnings of medieval Christian Europe. Manuals history of Christian archaeology: F.X. Kraus, Ãœber Begriff, Umfang, Geschichte der Christlichen Archäologie, Freiburg 1879; O. Marucchi, Eléments d’Archéologie Chrétienne, Rome 2 1906; H. Leclercq, Manuel d’Archéologie Chrétienne, Paris 1907; C.M. Kaufmann, Handbuch der Christlichen Archäologie, Freiburg 3 1922, 3-48; V. Schultze, Grundriss der Christlichen Archäologie, Gütersloh 2 1934, 1-3; F.W. Deichmann, Ausgrabungen im Raum dem Alten Kirche: RGG3  1 1957 762- 765; K. Wessel, Archäologie, Christliche: RGG3  1 1957 585-587; E. Coche de la Ferté, A.C.: EAA 1 1958 557-561; P. Testini, Armellini, Mariano: DBI 4 1962 233-234; G. Soteriou, Christianike kai Byzantine Archaiologia, Athens 1962; A. Pincherle, Baronio, Cesare: DBI 6 1964 470-478; E. Schaefer, Kunst, II Christliche Kunst Topographie, Museen: Lexikon d. Alten Welt, Zürich 1965, 1641-1644; N. Parise, Bosio, Antonio: DBI 13 1971 257-259; G. Pignatelli, Bottari, Giovanni Gaetano: DBI 13 1971 409-416; S. Mazzarino, L’impero romano, I, Bari 1973, 268-269; A. Effenberger, Frühchristliche Kunst und Kultur, Berlin 1986; G. Koch, Frühchristliche Kunst. Einführung, Stuttgart 1995; F.W. Deichmann, Archeologia Cristiana, Rome 1993; H. Brandenburg, Paleocristiana, Arte: EAA suppl. IV Rome 1994 210-215. Journals and publications with bibliography and accounts: American Journal of Archaeology; Annales du Service des Antiquités de Syrie; Archaeological Reports; Archeology Medievale; Acts Congressi Internazionali di Archeology Cristiana; Boreas Münster; Bulletin de l’association internationale pour l’étude de la mosaïque antique AIEMA; Bulletin Correspondance Hellénique; Byzantinische Zeitschrift; Byzantion; Cahiers Archéologiques; Corso di cultura sull’arte ravennate and Byzantine Ravenna 1955ff.; Deltion tes Christianikes Archaiologikes Hetaireias; Dumbarton Oaks Papers; Ephemeris Archaiologiki; Fasti Archaeologici; Gesta; Israel Exploration Journal; Jahrbuch für Antike und Christentum JbAChr; Journal of Early Christian Studies; Journal of Roman Archaeology; Karthago; Mitteilungen zur Christlichen Archäologie Vienna; Mitteilungen zur Spätantiken Archäologie und Byzantinischen Kunstgeschichte Munich; Oriens Christianus; Palestine Exploration Journal; Praktika tes en Athenais Archaiologikes Hetairias; Qadmoniot; Revue Biblique; Revue d’Histoire Ecclésiastique; RivAC; Römische Quartalsschrift für christliche Altertumskunde; Syria; Theologische Literaturzeitung; Theologische Rundschau; Vetera Christianorum; Vigiliae Christianae; Zeitschrift für Antikes Christentum; Zeitschrift für die Neutestamentliche Wissenschaft und die Kunde der älteren Kirche. Encyclopedias: Dictionnaire d’archéologie chrétienne et liturgie DACL; Dictionnaire d’histoire et de géographie ecclésiastique DHGE; Enciclopedia dell’Arte Antica, Classica and Orientale EAA; Enciclopedia d’arte medievale EAM; Reallexikon für Antike und Christentum EACh; Reallexikon zur Byzantinischen Kunst RBK.Early Christian Archaeology | First Annual Conference July 2015 holidaymapq


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