APOTHEOSIS

APOTHEOSIS. Term coined in the Hellenistic age to express the concept, already widespread, of the divinization of a mortal being after death. Aspired to by the founders of cities, great conquerors and sovereigns, it tended to be identified with state religion and was attached to the concept of the divine origin of the king’s authority. Alexander the Great was one of the first, if not the first great man, to be divinized. While in Greece and Egypt the culture favored the development of the idea, its appearance and acceptance at Rome were laborious and involved a considerable effort at adaptatation to Roman religious tradition. It was not by chance that this occurred at the time of the crisis of the republic, a historical-religious crisis of the Roman ethos. This crisis precipitated a turning aside from the native traditions upheld by the Senate and the auspices to the new formula of the heavenly exaltation of the well-deserving by the res publica, at first after death and later already in this life see Suetonius, Domitian 13. After the Senate’s decree conferring apotheosis on Julius Caesar, Augustus took a cautious attitude to proposals of divinization before death, refusing to be numbered among the gods. He did, however, manage to fuse the two Latin notions of numen and genius with the Greek forms of the victorius general, creating a mystique surrounding his own figure. In the provinces, esp. in the East, temples were erected in honor of the emperor and of Rome. The apotheosis decreed by the Senate meant not only the construction of temples but also the creation of a priestly class to serve them and of appropriate festivals to honor them. One manifestation was the specific and honorific title of Divus given to all the emperors numbered among the gods after their death. Though a part of Augustus’s monarchical revolution, to which he wanted to give a charismatic image, it nevertheless seems extraordinary when we reflect on the traditional Roman aversion to recognizing even the remote possibility of a man being Divus see Seneca, Divi Claudii apocolocyntosis. Drusus’s gesture in dedicating an ara Romae et Augusti at Lyons on 1 August 12 BC has more the flavor of a good omen than of emperorworship and was in fact followed by the expedition to conquer Germany to the Elbe 12-9 BC. Apotheosis was at its most intense in the 3rd c., together with the idea that the emperor personifies and represents the divinity on earth. With the gradual establishment of Christianity it declined, disappearing completely with Gratian. The basic idea survived, however, in the notion of a sovereignty that separated and distanced king from people. Herodian History of the Empire from the Death of Marcus describes the apotheosis of Septimius Severus IV, 2; K. Pr¼mm, Apotheosis: LTK 1, 766-767; E. Breccia, Apoteosi: EI 3,716-719; N. Turchi, Apoteosi: EC I, 1699-1700; L. Koep A. Hermann, Consecratio II: RAC III, 284-294; M. Adriani, Deificazione: Enc. d. Relig. 2,619-622; R. Bloch, La religione romana, Bari 1976, 198-199.Apotheosis of George Washington holidaymapq

APOTHEOSIS Gallery Photos

APOTHEOSIS


APOTHEOSIS

Apotheosis by Boris Vallejo Artist – Boris Vallejo Pinterest … holidaymapq

APOTHEOSIS

apotheosis of henry iv and the proclamation of the regency of … holidaymapq

APOTHEOSIS

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