APOSTOLIC CANONS, The 85 I. The 85 canons – II. The appendix to can. 50. I. The 85 canons. The Apostolic Constitutions end with 85 disciplinary canons 8, 47, concerning esp. sanctions to be adopted against clerical offenses; they also deal with baptism, divorce, ordinations, the liturgy, the laity, marriage of clergy and laity, fasting, participation in Jewish feasts, etc. Schwartz has maintained that these were not the work of the editor of the Apos. Con., but his hypothesis is unfounded inasmuch as they present many basic parallels and similarities in form with the parts that are by the editor of that work and also reflect the same mode of composition: the author used the apocryphal letter of Clement to James and the canons of the Councils of Antioch and Laodicea as canvases on which to insert additions of all kinds, dictated by his own spirit. There is therefore no reason to deny the authorship of the 85 canons, in the form in which they are preserved in the Apos. Con., to the editor of that work: they were composed in Cilicia by Julian the Arian shortly after 381. The Council of Constantinople of 394 already refers to them by the name Apostolic Canons. Because the 85 canons were thought to be of apostolic origin, separate copies of them were very soon produced, and they were included in collections of conciliar canons, e.g., at the beginning of John III Scholasticus’s Synagoge, the basis of Greek church law. The council In Trullo of 691 also lists them at the beginning of its list of authoritative canons ch. 2. They were translated from the Greek into most of the languages used in the Eastern churches, and into Latin by Dionysius Exiguus, who put them at the head of his collection of conciliar decrees, though stopping at the end of canon 50 number 49 in Dionysius’s list. The Decretum Gelasianum De libris recipiendis et non recipiendis, unduly attributed to Pope Gelasius and actually the work of a 6th-c. Proven§al cleric, lists them among the apocrypha because they contradicted the tradition of the Latin church on a number of points; this did not prevent Popes John VIII and Leo IX, and great canonists such as Ivo of Chartres and Gratian, from explicitly referring to them. II. The appendix to can. 50. One of these separate copies of the Apostolic Canons gave canon 50 a long theological appendix of pneumatomachian tendency text preserved in the Syriac Clementine Octateuch; retroversion in Schwartz 14-15; tr. in Nau, 123-124, which was not in the Apos. Con. Its unorthodox character doubtless led Dionysius to end his translation just before reaching it. John Scholasticus kept it but reworked it to make it orthodox text in Joannou 33-35. Editions: CPG 1740; Mansi 1, 29-48; 49-57 the 50 in Dionysius Exiguus’s translation; PG 137, 36-217 with commentary by Balsamone, Zonara and Aristeno; Hfl-Lecl 1, 2, 1216-1220; F.X. Funk, Didascalia et constitutiones apostolorum, Paderborn 1905 repr. Turin 1979, vol. I, 564-592; M. Metzger, Les Constitutions Apostoliques, SC 336, Paris 1987, 274-311 ed. and Fr. tr.; H. Tattam, The Apostolical Constitutions or Canons of the Apostles in Coptic with an English Translation, London 1848 repr. New York 1965; Winand Fell, Canones apostolorum aethiopice, Leipzig 1871 with Latin version; Eng. tr. by H. Schodde in Journal of Biblical Literature and Exegesis 1885 63-72; the Ethiopic collection is composed of 57 canons, some of them having been combined; Syriac tr.: F. Nau, La version syriaque de l’Octateuque de Clment, Paris 1913, new ed., ed. P. Ciprotti, Milan 1967; E. Gabidzashvili, Didi Sadzuliskanoni, Tbilisi 1975; V. Hakobian, Kanonenagirk` Hayoc`, I, Ereven 1964; C.H. Turner, EOMIA, Oxford 1899-1913, I,1, 1-34; 1,2, 32n-32nn; E. Hauler, Didascaliae apostolorum fragmenta Veronensia latina. Accedunt Canonum qui dicuntur Apostolorum et Aegyptiorum reliquiae, Leipzig 1900, 93-101; E. Tidner, Didascaliae apostolorum, Canonum ecclesiastorum, Traditionis apostolicae versiones latinae, Berlin 1963; P.P. Joannou, Discipline gnrale antique, I,2, Grottaferrata 1962, 1-55 with Fr. and Lat. tr.; A. Vbus, The Synodicon in the West Syrian Tradition, Louvain 1975, CSCO 367, 58-72; CSCO 368, 72-83 Eng. tr.; F. Boxler, Die sogenannten Apostolischen Constitutionen und Canones, Kempten 1874 Ger. tr.; A. Roberts – J. Donaldson, The Constitutions of the Holy Apostles: Ante-Nicene Fathers, 7, 391-505 Eng. tr.; canons 500-505. Edition of an Armenian version: H. Ghedighian, Collectio canonum Ecc. Armenae, I, Canones Apostolici, Venice 1941, 42-72. It.: D. Spada – D. Salachas, Costituzioni dei Santi Apostoli per mano di Clemente, Urbania Univ. Press, Rome 2001, Canoni Apostolici 244-261. Studies: H. Leclercq, DACL 2, 1910-1950; F. Nau, DTC 2, 1605- 1626; G. Bardy, DDC 2, 1288-1295; Coptic En. 2, 451-453; E. Schwartz, ber die pseudoapostolischen Kirchenordnungen: Schriften der wiss. Gesellschaft in Strassburg, 6, Strassburg 1910, 17-27 Gesamm. Schriften, V, Berlin 1963, 214-245; B. Steimer, Vertex traditionis. Die Gattung der altchristlichen Kirchenordnungen, Berlin 1992, 87-94.Apostles’ Creed Monergism holidaymapq


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