APOLLINARIS of Ravenna 2nd-3rd c.. Legendary first bishop of Ravenna and the city’s first and only known martyr. His episcopate is dated from the late 2nd to the early 3rd c. According to the Passio s. Apollinaris which is of doubtful historical value, he arrived at Rome with Peter; from there the apostle sent him as a missionary to Ravenna, where he worked for nearly twenty years until, ca. 75, he died from blows received from a group of pagans in revolt. His cult is attested in ancient times by the Mart. hier. 23 July; sermo 128 of Peter Chrysologus, archbishop of Ravenna in the 5th c. 424 451; and by an epigraph at Classe from the 6th c. indicating the place of his burial basilica of S. Apollinare in Classe. The church of S. Apollinare Nuovo later also claimed possession of the body, the remains supposedly having been removed there during the time of the Saracen incursions. These events, which in the 12th c. produced an opposition between the two religious entities, led to the drafting of two hagiographical texts, each claiming possession of the saint’s body for their respective basilica the Historia translationis beati Apolenaris linked to S. Apollinare Nuovo and the Tractatus domni Rodulfi venerabilis prioris Camaldulensis de inventione corporis beati Apolenaris linked to S. Apollinare in Classe. The Passio, one of the sources of Agnellus’s Liber pontificalis, was composed, perhaps based on a preexisting text, in the mid-7th c. at the time of Archbishop Maurus together with the false diploma of Valentinian III, which concedes to the diocese of Ravenna metropolitan rights over 14 suffragan churches, with the intent of claiming the apostolicity of the see of Ravenna and its autocephaly with respect to Rome. Apollinaris is the patron of Emilia Romagna and Ravenna. Other than at Ravenna, his cult is attested to at Rome from the time of Pope Symmachus 498 514 and in Italy, esp. in the Longobard territories and along the via Flaminia and the via Amerina. At Dijon, France, Clovis had a church built in his honor; from the 14th c. in Germany, at Remagen, S of Bonn, the local mount of St. Apollinaris became a place of pilgrimage. BHL 623-632; F. Lanzoni, Le diocesi d’Italia, Faenza 1927, 737- 748; E. Will, Saint Apollinaire de Ravenne, Paris 1936; G. Lucchesi, Note agiografiche sui primi vescovi di Ravenna, Faenza 1941; BS 2, 239-248; G. Orioli, La Vita sancti Apolenaris di Ravenna e gli antecedenti storici dell’organizzazione ecclesiastica ravennate: Apollinaris 59 1986 63-108; G. Binazzi, Orso, Cassiano, Apollinare. Appunti sulla diffusione dei culti al seguito delle milizie: RomBarb 9 1986-87 5-24; E. Morini, Santi orientali a Ravenna, in Storia di Ravenna, 22: Dall’et  bizantina all’et  ottoniana. Ecclesiologia, cultura e arte, Venice 1992, 283-303; G. Ropa, Agiografia e liturgia a Ravenna tra alto e basso Medioevo, in Storia di Ravenna, 3: Dal Mille alla fine della signoria polentana, Venice 1993, 341-393; R. Benericetti, Il Pontificale di Ravenna. Studio critico, Faenza 1994; G.D. Gordini, Giovanni Lucchesi agiologo, in Mons. Giovanni Lucchesi nel decimo anniversario della morte, Faenza 1994; P. Golinelli, Antichi e nuovi culti cittadini al sorgere dei Comuni nel nordItalia: Hagiographica 1 1994 159-180 esp. 169ff.; G. Arrighi, Il culto di sant’Apollinare in Lucca: Torricelliana 46 1995 155- 157; N. Orchard, The Medieval Masses in Honour of St Apollinaris of Ravenna: RBen 106 1996 172-184; Il grande libro dei Santi. Dizionario enciclopedico, 1, Turin 1998, 198-200.Saint Apollinaris of Ravenna Flickr – Photo Sharing! holidaymapq

APOLLINARIS of Ravenna Photo Gallery

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