APOCRYPHA IN EASTERN LANGUAGES. Apocrypha also had a very important role in ancient Eastern literature. A large number were translated from the Greek, with the pattern of translation usually being Greek-Coptic-Arabic-Ethiopian; or Greek- Syriac-Armenian-Georgian; some Georgian texts were translated from Syriac; some apocrypha were also written in Eastern languages. The texts translated from the Greek often contain many interesting variations. The translations are usually paraphrases, often with a strong accent on local customs and other local elements. We will limit ourselves here to a bibliographical summary of Muslim and Christian apocrypha in the most important languages of the Christian East. An introduction to Eastern apocrypha: F. Haase, Literararkritische Untersuchungen zur orientalischen-apokryphen Evangelienliteratur, Leipzig 1913; information on apocrypha in M. Albert, R. Beylot, R.G. Cocquin, B. Outtier, Ch. Renoux, A. Guillaumont, Christianismes orientaux, Paris 1993; Starowieyski 11, 842-845. Muslim apocrypha: Texts on Jesus and Mary can be found in a Persian writer, Tabar® 839-923 in La Chronique, Histoire des proph¨tes et des rois, tr. H. Zotenberg, 1-5, Paris 2001, vol. 1, 86- 121. On Christ and Mary in Islam, see D. Sidersky, Les origines des lgendes musulmanes dans le Coran et dans les Vies des Proph¨tes, Paris 1933, 136-150 Qur’an and the apocrypha; J.M. Abd-el-Jail, La vie de Marie selon le Coran et l’Islam, in Maria, ‰tudes sur la Sainte Vierge, 1, Paris 1949, 183-211; F.F. Bruce, Jesus and Christian Origins Outside the NT, London 1974, 167- 186; R. Arnaldez, Jsus, fils de Marie, proph¨te d’Islam, Paris 1980; A.J. Wensinck – P. Jonstone, Maryam, in Encyclop¨die d’Islam, 6, Leiden 1986, 613-617 bibl.; G. Rizzardi, Il fascino di Cristo nell’Islam, Milan 1989. Gospel of Barnabas: See Barnabas. Muslim agrapha: ed. M. As­n y Palacios, PO 13,3, 1916; PO 19,4, 1926, edition with Latin tr.; R. Dunkerley, The Muhhamedan Agrapha: Expository Times 39 1927-1928 167-171; 230-234. Christian apocrypha: Arabic: M. Dunlop Gibson, Apocrypha Arabica Studia Sinaitica 8, London 1901; Gospels: the Arabic infancy gospel. Ed.: CANT 58; BHO 619; H. Sike, Traiecti ad Rhenum Utrecht 1697, commentary; J.C. Thilo, Codex apocryphus NT, 1, Leipzig 1832, 66-131; E.A. W. Budge, A History of the Blessed Virgin Mary and the History of Likeness of Christ, 1-2, London 1899; M.E. Provera, Il vangelo arabo dell’infanzia secondo il Ms. Laurenziano orientale n. 387, Jerusalem 1973 introd., theology. Trans.: Fr. – P. Peeters, Evangiles apocryphes, 2, Paris 1914, 1-65; C. Ganeguaud: EAC 1,207-238; Lat. – Tischendorf 181-209; Ger. – Schneider 174-195; It. – Erbetta, 1,2, 102-123; Moraldi 1, 281-311; A. di Nola, Vangeli apocrifi. Nativit  e infanzia, Parma 1986 TEA. G. Messina, I Magi di Betlemme e una predicazione di Zoroastro, Rome 1933. G. Graf, Geschichte der christlichen arabischen Literatur, 1, Vatican City 1944, 224-257; R.G. Coquin, et al., Christianismes orientaux, Paris 1993, 53f.; G. Levi della Vida, Leggende agiografiche cristiane nell’Islam, in Acts del convegno internazionale sul tema: L’Oriente cristiano nella storia di civilt , Rome 1964, 139-151 Lincei, Quaderni 62; Starowieyski 1,405-439. Arabic Gospel of John: CANT 44; J. Galbiati, Ioannis Euangelium apocryphum arabice, 1-2, Mediolani 1957 in CANT, a concordance of fragments with the Ethiopian Miracles of Jesus. Trans.: Swed. – O. Lfgren, Stockholm 1967; It. – L. Moraldi, Milan 1991. O. Lfgren, Ein unbeachtetes apokryphes Evangelium: Orientalistische Literaturzeitung 4 1943 153-159; Id., Zur Charakteristik des apokryphen Johannesevangeliums: Orientalia Suecana 10 1961 147-154; E. Peretto, Cristo e la Vergine nel Vangelo Arabo di Giovanni: Marianum 25 1963 99-139; M. van Esbroeck, propos de l’‰vangile apocryphe arabe attribu   S. Jean: Mlanges de l’Universit S. Joseph 49 1975-1976 597-603; L. van Rompay, Les manuscrits thiopiens des Miracle de Jsus, comprenant l’Evangile apocryphe de Jean et l’Evangile de l’Enfance selon Thomas Isralite: AB 93 1975 133-146; W. Witakowski, The Miracles of Jesus: An Aethiopian Apocryphal Gospel: Apocrypha 6 1995 279-298. Transitus: M. Enger, Ioannis Apostoli de transitu Beatae Mariae Virginis liber, Eberfeld 1854. Joseph the Carpenter: A. Battista, B. Bagatti, Historia Iosephi fabri lignarii, Jerusalem 1978. Apocryphal Acts: A. Smith Lewis, Acta mythologica Apostolorum Horae Semiticae 3-4, London 1904. Aramean: See A. Desremaux, Les “uvres de la littrature chr- tienne en aramen christo-palstinien: Bulletin de AELAC 9 1999 9-14. Armenian: Gospels: Ed.: Mechitaristes 1-2, Venice 1898-1904. Infancy Gospel: ed.: CANT 59; BHO 617f.; E. Dayeci, 1, Venice 1898, 127-235; trans.: Fr. – P. Peeters, Evangiles apocryphes, 2, Paris 1914, 66-286; It. – Erbetta 1,2, 124-185; Craveri 149-213; Pol. – Starowieyski 1,1, 440-541. N. Marr, Iz letniej pojezdki w Armeniju: Zapiski Wostoczniego Otdielienija Impieratorskogo Russkogo ArchieoÄŸogiceskogo Obcestwa 6 1892 135-145 = Hamdes Amsorya 6 1892 232-235; S.J. Voicu, Gli apocrifi armeni: Augustinianum 23 1983 161-180 174. Acts: Ecrits apocryphes sur les Ap´tres. Traduction de l’dition armnienne de Venise, ed. L. Leloir, OSB, CCAp 3-4, 1986 tr. from the Mekhitarist ed.. See M.E. Stone, The Apocryphal Literature in the Armenian Tradition: Proceedings of the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities 4 1969 59-78 OT apocrypha; Id.: Apocrypha 1 1990 303-311; S.J. Voicu: Augustinianum 23 1983 161-180; Ch. Ronoux, in var. aus., Christianismes orientaux, Paris 1993, 129 n.; L. Leloir, Les citations vangliques dans la version armnienne des Actes apocryphes, in R. Gryson ed., Philologia sacra, FS, H. Frede, W. Thiele, 2, Freiburg 1993, 364- 377; V. Calzolari, Recriture des textes apocryphes en armnien, l’exemple de la lgende de l’apostolat de Thade en Armnie: Apocrypha 8 1997 97-110; B. Outtier, Paralytique et Resuscit Cant 85 et 62. Vie des apocryphes en armnien: Apocrypha 8 1997 111-120; V. Calzolari – J.D. Ka«stli – B. Outtier, Apocry- APOCRYPHA of the OT, Christian and Christianized phes armniens, traduction, cration, transmission, iconographie, Lausanne 1999. Coptic: E.A.W. Budge, Coptic Apocrypha in the Dialect of Upper Egypt, London 1913. See W. Grosouw, De Apocriefen van het Oude en Nieuve Testament in de koptische Letterkunde: Studia catholica 10 19331934 434-446; 11 19341935 19-36; T. Orlandi, Gli apocrifi copti: Augustinianum 23 1983 57-71; F. Morard, Notes sur le recueil des actes apocryphes coptes: RThPh 113 1981 403-413; A. Perez: Coptic Encyclopaedia 1, 161-169 bibl.; R.G. Coquin, in var. aus., Christianismes orientaux, Paris 1993, 190f.; M. Rassart-Debergh, Littrature apocryphe et l’art copte: Apocrypha 7 1996 253-259. See also the texts of Nag Hammadi. Ethiopian: Gospels and Transitus: M. Chaine, Apocrypha de Beata Maria Virgine: CSCO 39-40Aeth 1-2, 1909 1961; S. Grbaut, Les miracles de Jsus: PO 12,4 1919; 14,5 1920; 17,4 1924; ROC 16 1911 255-265, 356-367; 21 19181919 73-87, 94- 99, 100-103, 190-203, 204-213; E.A.W. Budge, One Hundred and Ten Miracles of Our Lady, London 2 1933; Id., Legends of Our Lady Perpetual Virgin and the Mother Hanna, London 2 1933; E. Cerulli, Il libro etiopico dei Miracoli di Maria e le sue fonti nelle letterature del Medio Evo latino, Rome 1943; V. Arras, De Transitu Mariae Apocrypha Aethiopice: CSCO 342,351Aeth 343,352 1973-1974; M.A. van den Oudenrijn, Gamaliel ¤thiopische Texte zur Pilatusliteratur, Fribourg 1959. Acts: E.A.W. Budge, The Contendings of Apostles, 1-2, London 2 1935 repr. Amsterdam 1976; R. Basset, Les apocryphes thiopiens traduits en fran- §ais, 1-11, Paris 1893-1909. See E. Cerulli, La letteratura etiopica, Florence 3 1968; E. Hammerschmidt, Das Pseudo-apostolische Schrifttum in ¤thiopischer berlieferung: Journal of Semitic Studies 9 1964 114-121; P. Piovanelli, Les aventures des apocryphes en Ethiopie: Apocrypha 4 1993 197-224; R. Beylot, in var. aus., Christianismes orientaux, Paris 1993, 237-239; ANT 615 n. Georgian: Ed.: C. Kurcikidze, Tbilisi 1959. Georgian Infancy Gospel: unpubl.; Pol. tr. G. Peradze, in Starowieyski 11, 204-229. See M. Tarchnivili, Geschichte der kirchlichen georgischen Literatur, SeT 185, Vatican City 1955; M. van Esbroeck: Augustinianum 23 1983 57-91; B. Outtier in var. aus., Christianismes orientaux, Paris 1993, 279. Syriac: Ed.: W. Wright, Contribution to the Apocryphal Literature of the New Testament, 1-2, London 1865; M. Dunlop Gibson, Apocrypha Sinaitica Studia Sinaitica 5, London 1896; E.A.W. Budge, The History of the Blessed Virgin Mary and the Likeness of Christ, London 1899; A. Smith-Lewis, Apocrypha Syriaca: The Protevangelium Iacobi et Transitus Mariae Studia Sinaitica 11, London 1902. Acts: W. Wright, Apocryphal Acts of Apostles, 1-2, Edinburgh 1871 repr. Amsterdam 1968; E. Mecerskaja, Apokrificeskie dejania apostolow. Nowozawetnye apokrifi w sirijskoj literaturie, Moscow 1997 anthology of Syrian texts in Russian tr.. See A. Baumstark, Geschichte der syrischen Literatur, Bonn 1922; I. Ortiz de Urbina, Patrologia Syriaca, Rome 2 1965; H.J.W. Drijvrs, Apocryphal Literature in the Cultural Milieu of Osro«ne: Apocrypha 1 1999 231-246; J. Texidor, L’ap´tre d’apr¨s la littrature syriaque: Apocrypha 1 1999 267-277; M. Albert, in var. aus., Christianismes orientaux, Paris 1993, 318-320; A. Desremaux, Remarques sur le r´le des apocryphes dans la thologie des ‰glises syriaques: l’exemple de Testimonia christologiques indits: Apocrypha 8 1997 165-177.Classic Commentaries and Studies on the Biblical Apocrypha … holidaymapq


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