ANOINTING For the first Christians, the Anointed One by antonomasia was Jesus Christ, the Crucified One, the Risen One: christos, messias. God anointed him with the Holy Spirit and with power Acts 10:38. He said of himself: The Spirit of the Lord is upon me; for this reason he has anointed me Lk 4:18. Within these expressions, a readily understood metaphor reappears in the culture of the ancient Mediterranean world, and especially that of the Jewish-Hellenistic world.
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Anointings were commonly performed not only in secular contexts to cure physical maladies, to alleviate them or bring restoration, but also in the religious sphere for the consecration of objects and for the appointment of individuals to important offices PWK 17, 2 1998 2454-2474. The symbolic meaning of the gesture was also well known. This also held for the OT: Saul and David were anointed kings; Aaron and his sons, priests.
In the translated sense, the infusion of the Spirit into the prophets was referred to as an anointing DACL 62, 2777. All of this found its fulfillment in the anointed one par excellence, Jesus the Messiah, the Christ christos. His anointing by the Spirit was therefore conferred upon all Christians see 2 Cor 1:21ff.
In the NT only the symbolic meaning was directly considered. Later this is rather clear in Ephrem the Syrian's hymns that were dedicated to the theme of oil De virgin. IV, 8 and 7.
Nevertheless, the disciples truly did anoint the sick with oil Mk 6:13, and we learn from the anointing of the Lord by the sinning woman and the woman in Bethany how it could be considered something that was generally practiced. But above all, in Jas 5:14-16 mention is made of an anointing of the sick with oil in the name of the Lord for their healing and deliverance from sin. Here, at the very least, one finds the embryo of what would become after a long historical process the sacrament of the anointing of the sick. ? We do not have information with respect to other anointings in the NT.
Nevertheless, in agreement with the OT and Hellenistic use, the apostolic image of the anointing in the Spirit very early on could have also come to crystallize the practice of Christian initiation in the anointing with oil. The first testimony to this is in the writings of Tertullian De baptismo 7: Having emerged from the font, we are thoroughly anointed with a blessed unction according to the original teaching, according to the schema of the priestly anointings recorded in the OT and in memory of the anointing from which Christ derived his name. Chapter 21 of the Apostolic Tradition has been the object of extensive discussion by modern scholarship.
In particular, it seems problematic to interpret the meaning of the postbaptismal anointing and anointings. It seems that there were not many problems for Africans in recognizing Tertullian, Bapt. 7-8, De res.
Car. 8; Cyprian, Ep.70, 2; 73, 9; 74, 5 the existence of a postbaptismal anointing, an imposition of hands with an epiclesis and at times a signatio of the baptized person.
A similar line can be traced in the Roman context of Hippolytus's Commentary on Daniel, in which he acknowledges a postbaptismal anointing as a pneumatological mark. It seems that, moreover, a type of bond could be established between the presbyterial anointing attested to in the Trad. Ap.
21, 19 and the Roman and African tradition of a postbaptismal anointing. Instead, it was only at Rome Trad. Ap.
21, 22 in the 5th c.that there was an attestation to the second postbaptismal anointing reserved for the bishop: an anointing that subsequently would be designated by the name myron. The entire Third Mystagogical Catechesis attributed to Cyril of Jerusalem is dedicated to this anointing with myron.
There Cyril says that through the anointing those who are about to be baptized become coheirs and participants with Christ, who was anointed with the spiritual oil of gladness, that is, the Holy Spirit 3, 2.The myron is the reflected image of the Holy Spirit, the free gift of Christ and the power of the Spirit through the presence of his divinity 3, 3; the anointing of the soul with the invisible Holy Spirit corresponds to the visible anointing of the body 3, 3.With this anointing the candidates finally became worthy of the name Christian 3, 5.
The sacramental effects here emphasized by Cyril always remain connected, in Eastern theology, with the anointing with myron; it pertains properly to what in the West is called chrism B.Neunheuser, Taufe und Firmung, 104; 2 137. The Syriac baptismal liturgy assumes a special position, the Didascalia siriaca second half of the 3rd c.
And the Apostolic Constitutions end of the 4th c.. According to these texts, before the true and proper baptismal washing, the forehead and the entire body is anointed just as the priests and the kings were anointed, as a sign of a spiritual baptism Apos. Con.
III, 16, 3 e 4: Funk 211. Although an anointing with the myron was performed even after baptism, the prebaptismal anointing was especially emphasized. This is confirmed by Theodore of Mopsuestia's catechetical homilies, according to which in the first anointing, as in an exordium of the sacrament, the candidate is marked, with a consignatio, as a sheep of Christ's flock and as a soldier of the heavenly King.
The second anointing pertains to the entire body of the catechumen, who is undressed in order to be able to be reclothed with the garment of immortality through the power of the Holy Spirit Neunheuser, Taufe im Geist, 278ff.. The consignatio or the signatio after baptism is only mentioned in passing. Ephrem expressed himself along the same lines: The anointing precedes baptism, the Holy Spirit soars upon its wings the oil remits sin De virg.
VII, 2-15: CSCO 124, 25-29. Anointing and washing are here connected in a special way with the unitary action of baptism in the Spirit. ? According to Cyril of Alexandria, however, the Holy Spirit is unmistakably infused with the anointing with myron, after the baptismal washing III Cat.myst.
In the West, the second anointing after baptism was not especially emphasized. Ambrose only recognized one signatio, without anointing, although Pope Innocent I attached one anointing to it Ep. Ad Decent.
3,6: PL 20, 555A = DS 215. Until the Venerable Bede and Isidore of Seville, the situation remained practically unchanged, although from that time onward the anointing gradually achieved a place of primary importance In Act. 8: PL 92, 961B; Hom.
In Theoph. PL 94, 63D; Isid. Etym.6,19, 50-54: PL 82, 256C; Eccl. Off.
2,26; 27, 1-4: PL 83, 23, 826A. All of this is also confirmed by the Sacramentarium Gelas. V.
After a prebaptismal anointing n.421 with the exorcised oil oleum exorcizatum, once baptism in water had been performed, the second anointing with chrism chrisma followed, first by the presbyter, then by the bishop, with the laying on of hands and the anointing of the forehead accompanied by the words: Signum Christi in vitam aeternam Gelas.V. 452.
The anointings of the altar, the church and the king Pepin were less important Hofmeister, 195-200; 206; 169. Instead, the anointing with oil, according to Jas 5, was practiced widely. In the East, because of its close connection to the remission of sins, it was placed in close relationship with penance and reconciliation Hofmeister 180- 185.
In the West, it continued to be practiced as a remedy in times of sickness, which was administered by the priests, but requested by the believers themselves. Pope Innocent I stated the following: It is permissible not only for priests but also for all Christians to apply the oil of chrism from the bishop in their own time of need or in that of those closest to them Ep. Ad Decent.
8,11: PL 20, 559A-560A = DS 216. The pope refers to it as a genus sacramenti ibid. ; only the later scholastic theology would explain its theological meaning. Ph.
Hofmeister, Die hl. ?le in der morgenl¤ndischen und abendl¤ndischen Kirche, Wunzburg 1948; W.D¼rig, Die Salbung der Martyrer.
Ein Beitrag zur Martyrentheologie der Liturgie: SE 6 1954 14-47; B.Neunheuser, Taufe und Firmung, Freiburg 1956; 2 1983 French trans. Baptªme et Confirmation, Paris 1966; Id. Taufe im Geist: Arch.
12 1970 268-284; H.Vorgrimler, Busse und Krankensalbung, Freiburg 1978, 215-234; TWNT 1, 230-232 GLNT 1, 617-626; 4, 807ff. GLNT 7, 639- 646; 9, 482-573; DACL 6, 2777-2791; 12, 2116-2130; DSp 11, 788- 819; M.
Righetti, Storia liturgica, Milan 1953, IV, passim; L.C. Mitchell, Baptismal Anointing, London 1966; C.Ortmann, Le sacrement des malades, Paris 1971 It.
Trans. Turin 1971; E.C. Whitaker, Documents of the Baptismal Liturgy, London 2 1970; new ed.
2003; G.Winkler, The Original Meaning of the Prebaptismal Anointing and Its Implications: Worship 52 1978 24-45; G.Winkler, Das armenische Initiationsrituale, Rome 1982; V.
Saxer, Les rites de l'initiation chrtienne du IIe au VIe si¨cle, Spoleto 1988; M.Dudley – G.Rowell eds. The Oil of Gladness: Anointing in the Christian Tradition, Collegeville, MN 1993; M.E.
Johnson, The Prayers of Sarapion of Thmuis: A Literary, Liturgical, and Theological Analysis, Rome 1995; W.Kinzig – C.Markschies – M.
Vinzent, Tauffragen und Bekenntnis, Berlin 1999; P.F. Bradshaw, M.E. Johnson, L.E.
Phillips, The Apostolic Tradition, Minneapolis 2002; RAC 21, 915-965. See also the bibliography for the entry Oil in this encyclopedia. Purpose of Anointing Oil « Rebecca at the Well Foundation holidaymapq
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